Updated 07/19/98

POM 98 Conference Proceedings
Arranged by Author in Alphabetical Order



























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Alsua SB7.2 Implications of Demographic Diversity, Tolerance, & Identity for Group Performance, Carlos Jesus Alsua, (602) 727-6266, alsua@asu.edu. Mark A. Clark, (602) 727-6269, mark.a.clark @asu.edu, Department of Management, Box 874006, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5287-4006. Jill M. Sundie, (602) 727-6140, sundie@.asu.edu, Department of Psychology, Box 871104, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1104

This paper suggests that demographic diversity influences the perceived similarity of values and beliefs among members of a group. This is moderated by the level of information exchange, shared memberships, and communicative participation. Perceived similarity also influences an individual's identification with the group. This relationship, however is moderated personal need for structure (NFS) in a way that members with a lower NFS are more tolerant of perceived value and belief differences between themselves and other group members and thus they find it easier to identify with their workgroup. Finally, the level of identification with the group influences performance. Implications for individual selection to workgroups are suggested.

alsua.doc          alsua.zip


Alsua SC2.1 Peer Dictatorship And Control In Organizational Processes: A Consequence Of Information Systems-Driven Performance Measurement And Workforce Management Democratization? Carlos Jesus Alsua, Department of Management; Arizona State University; Tempe,AZ 85287-4006, Alsua@asu.edu; Phone: 602-727-6266. Marcus A. Rothenberger, School of Accountancy and Information Management; Arizona State University; Tempe, AZ 85287-3606, Marcus.Rothenberger @asu.edu

As organizations shift from a command to a generative strategy process, the degree of workforce involvement increases, and authority shifts from managers to self-managed teams. These changes, however, may affect managerial control in an unexpected way. As control over employees moves from a traditional hierarchical form into a concertive form, this control may become a peer dictatorship with some negative consequences for workforce democratization. We identify the level of autonomy of individuals within a team and the scope of performance measurement and reward allocation as two major factors for the development of peer dictatorship. Implications for the empowerment level of team members and for the use of Information Systems to collect performance data are discussed.

Word. doc          zip file


Alvarez-Gil TB6.1 An Essay on the Dimensions and Components of Customisation in Service Operations Management, Maria J. Alvarez-Gil, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, c/ Madrid 126, 28903 Getafe, Madrid, Spain, catinaag@eco.uc3m.es, Daniel Arias-Aranda, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad CC. EE., Departmento de Organizacion, Campus do Somosaguas, 28223, Madrid, Spain, darias@ccee.ucm.es

There is a scarcity of guidelines that trigger the adoption of Customisation, a concept frequently brought up in Service-related Operations Management. This paper suggests a comprehensive framework of the Customisation process and its implications for Service Operations Management. We identify the two most outstanding features of Customisation, based upon the concepts of customer=s needs and wishes. Main difference between them and their respective effects on the design of the Operations Strategy are discussed. Second, we identify the four dimensions (Time, Space, Flexible Delivery, and Perceptual Fitting) explaining such concepts and that may address of the implementation of the Operations Strategy.


Amundson TA2.3 Product Quality and Innovation Speed, Susan Amundson, Arizona State University, Box 874006, Tempe, AZ, 85287, susan.amundson@asu.edu, Barbara B. Flynn, Wake Forest University, Box 7659, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, barb_flynn@mail.mba.wfu.edu, James Flynn, Wake Forest University, Box 7659, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, jim_flynn@mail.mba.wfu.edu, Roger Schroeder, University of Minnesota, 271 19th Ave S, Minneapolis, MN 55455, Rschroeder@csom.umn.edu 

The relationship between fast product innovation and product quality is not obvious: are practices underlying rapid product development consistent with product and process quality, or do speed and quality represent tradeoffs in product development? The results of a 3-year NSF TQO study concerning this issue will be reported. Phase I of the study involved case study research with cross-case analysis. The results of Phase I led to the creation of a set of survey instruments which serve as an assessment tool for new product development teams. The development of an NPD assessment tool which will provide information to answer these research questions will be discussed.


Anderson TB2.1 Staffing Policies and Technological Infrastructure in Firms Characterized by Non-stationary Demand, Edward Anderson, University of Texas, CBA 4202, Austin, TX, 78712, edanderson@mail.utexas.edu 

Cyclicality is a well-known phenomenon in market economies. Less appreciated, however, is the effect of cyclicality upon the technological infrastructure of manufacturing firms. Recent theories suggest that much of this infrastructure is embodied in the tacit experience of employees. Accordingly, this paper examines the management of employees with long training times, such as engineers, under non-stationary product demand. Using a dynamic programming approach, this paper will show that demand volatility lowers average project quality, delays completion, and increases cost. It will also show that firms can reduce these negative effects through their choice of staffing policy. 


Andor SD8.2 Integration of some methods of reliability engineering and engineering economics for the productivity increase of a bulb production line, Gyorgy Andor, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. Of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary, andor@vvg.bme.hu, Janos Kovesi, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary. 

By demonstrating the example of a multinational company in Hungary, the presentation shows some parts of the introduction of a TPM program. Since the Hungarian company conditions show a significant difference compared with characteristics of the Western European company environment, it was necessary to amplify the usual phases of the TPM introduction. It seems that this presentation of our recommendations for different approaches to the local situation in Hungary will be useful and practical for future use. 


Apparaju SA8.1 Application of SPC Techniques in a Process Industry: A Case Study, Nagaraju Apparaju, Industrial Engineering & Management, IIT Kharagpur, INDIA 78181, pkr@vgsom.iitkgp.ernet.in, P.K. Ray, Industrial Engineering & Management, IIT Kharagpur, INDIA 78181, pkr@vgsom.iitkgp.ernet.in 

Continuous measurement and control of quality of materials inputs and other factors of production, including furnace related control variables, is a prerequisite for achieving desired performance in terms of acceptable outputs for the customers in any process industry. The SPC techniques are recommended to be used at various stages of production primarily to achieve these objectives. In this paper, an application of SPC techniques for different operations of a process industry, located in Eastern India, producing products like Silico manganese, ferrochrome, ferromanganese, etc. has been discussed. Based on a quantitative assessment of the problems currently encountered by the company like high carbon contents in the outputs and inappropriate positioning of electrodes in the furnace, inconsistent quality of raw materials, variations in Cr2O3, SiO2, Si, etc., appropriate statistical control techniques have been suggested for several critical operations, and the root causes of the problems and deviations from the targets have also been adequately addressed in this study. It is mix ratios, adding fluxes/reducers at different stages as per the requirements, adjusting the slipping rate of electrodes, etc., the quality of output can be maintained consistently. The expected benefits through application of SPC approaches have also been highlighted. 


Apte SD6.1 Lean Services, Uday M. Apte, Management Information Sciences Department, Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, 75275-0333, uapte@mail.cox.smu.edu, Chon-Huat Goh, Management Information Sciences Department, Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0333.  

Lean principles have been successfully used to increase productivity and quality of manufactured products. In this paper, we discuss how these lean principles used in manufacturing can be applied, with minor modification, to services. The paper also suggests strategies for achieving lean services and illustrates them through concrete examples. 


Apte TB6.2 Managing Operations in the Knowledge Economy, Uday Apte, Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, 75275, uapte@mail.cox.smu.edu, Richard Mason, Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, dmasm@mail.cox.smu.edu 

In this paper we propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the challenges of managing operations in today's knowledge economy. The framework classifies jobs in three categories based on each job's knowledge-intensity, physical-intensity and customer-contact intensity. The knowledge management challenges of job types are analyzed next to draw conclusions related to managing operations.


Askin SC8.4 The Impact of Setup and Material Handling on Transfer Batch Sizing, Ronald Askin, Systems & Ind. Engr., Engineering Bldg. #20, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, ron@sie.arizona.edu 

By allowing parallel processing of process batches and increasing service rates, transfer batches or lot-splitting can reduce throughput times in discrete parts manufacturing. In this paper we consider the case where each transfer batch has an associated fixed production time component in addition to a variable processing time determined by the batch size. This could result form either a minor setup or manual material transfer operation. We explore the tradeoff between the advantages of small transfer batches and the resultant increase in resource utilization to determine the transfer batch size that minimized throughout time.


Ayala-Cruz SA6.3 A Numerical Methodology for the Design of Sales Territory for Services Competitiveness, Jorge Ayala-Cruz, Llanes C 12 Villa Andalucia, San Juan, PR 00926

This study discusses a methodology for improving the service competitiveness by designing balanced sales territories. The methodology developed in this study is an extension of the model developed by Hess and Samuels for legislative districting which builds optimal sales and service territories that satisfy the principles of (1) equal sales workload, (2) contiguity, and (3) compactness. The proposed methodology uses a genetic algorithm for global optimal solution based on the mentioned principles. The methodology was tested and implemented using two sales design scenarios, one deterministic and one stochastic. In this last case, both scenario solutions were obtained using the original and the proposed methodology. The results showed that the proposed methodology yields improved solutions compared with the original methodology


Bamirez-Bellran SB2.1 A Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Integer Programming Problems, Nazario Bamirez-Bellran, University of Puerto Rico, Industrial Engineering Department, Magaguez, Puerto Rico, 680, na_ramirex@rumac.upr.clu.edu 

A general purpose heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve pure integer programming problems. The heuristic method has been developed to provide an optimal or near optimal solution to integer problems within a reasonable computational time. The heuristic problem is based first in determining the continuous optimal solution an the best sub-optimal continuous solutions and second obtaining in the neighborhood of the best continuous extreme points the associate integer solutions. The integer solutions are found by decomposing the extreme point into two components, an integer point and a secondary system of linear equations. If the secondary system provides a feasible solution, then the associate integer solution is feasible.


Bandy SC3.4 Teaching Forecasting Using Attendance at Cubs Games, D. Brent Bandy, College of Business Administration, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI, 54901, bandy@vaxa.cis.uwosh.edu 

The teaching of forecasting in an introductory operations management course is enhanced through the use of data for Chicago Cub baseball games. Forecasting is introduced to the students by having them submit forecasts for attendance for upcoming games. Immediate feedback is provided the next class session in terms of actual attendance and related data. On a weekly basis, values for mean absolute deviation and root mean square error are provided for each student. A forecasting project then involves development of a forecasting model for Cub attendance and its evaluation using past data, which is provided in a spreadsheet file.

bandy.wpd           bandy.zip


Barut SB2.4 A Mixed-Integer Programming Model for Allocating Capacity to Two Competing Classes of Products, Mehmet Barut, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson, SC, 29634, mbarut@clemson.edu, Sri V. Sridharan, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29364, suhas@clemson.edu 

Many service firms use the concept of yield management to manage the match between scarce capacity and demand. Its usefulness for managing capacity/demand in manufacturing firms, however, is relatively unexplored. Some researchers have adopted the yield management concept to certain specialized make-to-order manufacturing environments via the so-called "capacity rationing" approach to solve the capacity allocation problem. In this paper, a mixed integer programming model is developed to obtain the optimum allocation of limited capacity to two competing classes of products. The results from both the model and the heuristic are compared, and the effectiveness of the capacity rationing is discussed.


Bates SB4.2 Working with Goliath. Using knowledge to counter power imbalances within the supply chain?, Hilary Bates, Operations Strategy Research Unit, Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K., Pomhb@wbs.warwick.ac.uk. Nigel Slack, Operations Strategy Research Unit, Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K., Pomns@wbs.warwick.ac.uk.

Accepted supply chain management theory presupposes that customers are more powerful than suppliers, either by reason of size or because of the sheer volume of their orders. This focus has resulted in a wealth of advice on management of the supply chain. However, for the many companies who do not have adequate leverage with their supply base, much of this advice is merely of general interest rather than practical use. In this paper we suggest that there are ways in which small companies can manipulate the supply base to their advantage by calling on their own extensive process and product knowledge. Illustrated by industry case studies.

Batista SD7.1 Productivity Measurement at the Services Sector - A Case Study in Engineering Projects Shop, Georgia Bakker Batista, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045  Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970 - Joao Pessoa/Paraiba, gbakker@summer.com.br, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mastrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federa da Paraiba, Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970 - Joao Pessoa/Paraiba.

Actually, under a changes and definitions situation, it is common to comment about productive organizations innovation. Therefore, these concepts, comprehended only about a technological or labor methods view point, seem incomplete because an important point in this approach has been forgot: the production systems management ways - an influential factor in success of modernization initiatives. It seems pertinent to question about the reformulation productivity concepts necessity, based on a large view - and concordant with the organizations reality. This paper shows a theory levantamento about the principal productivity concepts and, then, a case study in an engineering projects shop, which contribute to analyze the applicability, divergences, and relations between the approaches.

Batista TB8.4 Delays in Performing Engineering Projects - A Case Study in Brazil, Georgia Bakker Batista, Mastrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federa da Paraiba, Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970 - Joao Pessoa/Paraiba, gbakker@summer.com.br, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mastrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federa da Paraiba, Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970 - Joao Pessoa/Paraiba.

Delays are specially important today, as a competitive factor in production organizations, which are related with manufacture or services. Specially the engineering projects sector is closely connected with the delays perform question, therefore its influence over the efficacy of the productivity chain, in Building Sector, is considerable. In that view, this paper objectives to detect the project shops compromise grade with the delays perform necessity, likewise the importance level the charters - the building organizations - attribute to the competitive factor. This paper shows, in addition, the building organizations comportment about the delays problems and the contract articles utilization that foresee punishment in this case.


Baxter TA8.1 Production Analysis Methods Applied to Start-up Operations, Joe A. Baxter, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS-0419, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, jabaxte@sandia.gov, Thomas M. Bomber, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS-0419, Albuquerque, NM 87185, tmbombe@sandia.gov 

This paper describes the methods used to analyze a ceramic component manufacturing operation at Sandia National Laboratories. The application involves a start-up production operation that fabricates, assembles, and tests multiple products. Examples will show how shop floor operations were assessed using an expected value model and a dynamic simulation model. The analyses quantified the labor, equipment, and floor space required to satisfy projected demand. "Standard" times and costs were evaluated for each product. Additional analyses were conducted to assess and modify a multi-year production schedule and to assess the cost of product nonconformance.


Beaumont SB5.1 Investment Decisions in Australian manufacturing, Nicholas Beaumont, Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, P.O. Box 197 Caulfield East, Vic 3145, Australia, nicholas.beaumont@buseco.monash.edu.au 

In 1996-1997 the author conducted structured interviews with 50 CEO's and production managers of Australian manufacturing companies. The objectives were to ascertain the criteria firms used to make investment decisions in manufacturing technology; how (and how well) they managed the introduction of new technology; whether (after implementation) they had experienced unanticipated effects and what factors impeded or assisted implementation. This paper discusses past work, describes the methodology, suggests a way of grouping criteria and gives some preliminary findings. The most important finding is that tangible criteria dominated decisions but that considerable intangible benefits were usually experienced.


Bianco TA9.1 Solution Algorithms for the Flow Shop No-Wait Scheduling Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup Times, Lucio Bianco, Dip. Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Univ. di Roma "Tor Vergata" Via di Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, bianco@presidenza.cnr.it, Paolo Dell'Olmo, Dip. Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Univ. di Roma "Tor Vergata" Via di Tor Vergata, dellolmo@iasi.rm.cnr.it, Stefano Giordani, Dip. Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Univ. di Roma "Tor Vergata" Via di Tor Vergata, giordani@iasi.rm.cnr.it 

We study the problem of no-wait scheduling jobs, with sequence dependent setup times, on a flow shop to minimize the makespan. In a no-wait environment, a job must be processed from start to finish without interruption either on or between machine. This occurs, for example in a production process where there is no intermediate buffer between machines. Moreover, we consider the case in which the setup time of a job operation on a machine is sequence dependent, that is it depends on the job processed immediately before by the machine. For this problem we give heuristic solution algorithms and analyze computational results.


Bicheiro TA4.3 An Analysis of Integrated Implementation of Approaches JIT/TQC/ISO 9000, Carlos Bicheiro, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS no 1303, Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000, bicheiro@sulminas.com.br, Joao Turrioni, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS no 1303,Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000, turrioni@usp.br, Carlos Silva, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS no 1303,Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000. 

In this paper an analysis of integrating implementation of TQC, JIT and ISO 9000 approaches, is done. A discussion about the integration of such approaches as a mean to speed up the improvement of Quality and Productivity is performed. The main characteristics of each approach is compared, showing that there is a compatibility among them. We discuss a case study in a company whose the program of improvement of the quality and productivity is based on the integration of these approaches.


Bourne SC7.4 Some insights into the reasons for success and failure of performance measurement systems, Mike Bourne, Manufacturing and Management Division, Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX, UK, , SMTP: mcsb@eng.cam.ac.uk, John Mills, Manufacturing and Management Division, Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX, UK 

Recent developments of performance measurement frameworks, such as Kaplan & Norton's Balanced Scorecard, together with management processes for designing performance measurement systems, are receiving considerable attention especially on the management conference circuit. However, not all performance measurement projects are successful. This paper will focus on the results of ten action research case studies conducted in British small to medium sized manufacturing companies who used a similar management process for the design and implementation of their balanced performance measurement systems. The reasons for success and failure will be presented together with some examples of the benefits gained.


Brown SA1.3 Project Management Course Design for the Next Century, Tim Brown, Bryant College, Smithville, Rhode Island, Dwight-Smith Daniels, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Jim Patterson, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, patterso@iubvm.ucs.indiana.edu

Project Management is receiving an increased emphasis both in executive education and in an MBA elective or required course. Project Managers often enter the fast-track in an organization after they have successfully completed a project assignment. Organizing work teams using a project format gives firms an early opportunity to view young employees' (managers') on the job performance. This paper will consist of a discussion involving the audience in advanced level project management course design. We will discuss content, method of delivery, use of projects, software, and so forth. Attendees will be given course syllabi for half semester, full semester (both for a required as well as an elective course), and executive education courses. Syllabi will be given for both existing and proposed new courses in the project management field. 


Carrillo SC2.4 Dynamic Strategies For the Implementation of Multiple Process Improvement Projects, Janice Carrillo, Washington University, Campus Box 1133, One Brookings Dr., St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899, carrillo@wuolin.wustl.edu, Cheryl Gaimon, DuPree School of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, cheryl.gaimon@mgt.gatech.edu 

Process improvement is a practical means by which a firm can enhance its manufacturing capabilities to better compete during both current and future planning horizons. In order to achieve and/or maintain manufacturing excellence, a firm must create a coherent process improvement program by linking the implementation of various projects. However, the interactive nature of process improvements complicates successful implementation. A model is introduced to assess both adverse and beneficial interactions that occur when multiple process changes are implemented concurrently and/or sequentially over time.


Castro SD5.1 Production Information Systems: Small and Average Companies Case, Joao Castro, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, eps1jee@mbox1.ufsc.br, Rodolfo Florence, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, rft@eps.ufsc.br, Miguel Fiod, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, labsad@eps.ufsc.br 

Industrial environment are constantly confronted with fundamental technology changes. Lesser innovation cycles, global competition and bigger costs are caring companies to structure their operations and business rationally. Successful companies are characterized by integration between clients and furnishes by information net, using modern information technology, increasing the quality of jobs in a minimum time and lesser price. There are several technologies available in the market, at high costs, becoming impracticability the use in small and average companies and impelling the same to support a serious technological disadvantage. The purpose of this work is to suggest a technology applicable to small and average companies, using Client/Serve systems and as complete SQL data bank. 


Chakavorty SC9.4 A Sensitivity Analysis of Order Release Mechanisms in Jobshop Operations, Satya S. Chakavorty, Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, Georgia, 30144 -5591, schakrav@ksumail.kennesaw.edu, J. Brian Atwater, Utah State University,  3510 University Blvd., Logan, UT 84322-3510, batwater@b202.usu.edu 

The purpose of this research is to perform a sensitivity analysis on two Order Release (OR) mechanisms. In the first OR mechanism, jobs are released to the shop at a constant rate and the jobs are dispatched through each work center using the shortest processing time (SPT). In the second OR mechanism, jobs are released to the shop using the DBR scheduling logic. The AWESIM 2.0 software has been used to develop both OR procedures for a four-machine jobshop operation. Several conditions (e.g., product mix sensitivity and processing time variability) are being currently identified to compare both the OR procedures. The results of the study will be presented at the conference.


Chakravarty, TB5.1 Real-Time Updating of Anticipatory Production and Supply Plans, Amiya K. Chakravarty, A.B. Freeman school of Business, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118-5669, Amiyac@freeman.tulane.edu


Well known control approaches such as Just In Time (JIT) and materials requirement Planning (MRP) do not permit a real time update of an anticipatory production plan. While MRP does not entertain real time changes, JIT does not have any provision for anticipatory capacity plans. We model a hybrid control system for quick response, and derive priority rules for allocating scarce capacity to competing products.



Charu SA4.3: A Formal Integrated Production Planning and Control Modeling & Analysis Framework for a Cooperative Supply Chain, Chandra Charu, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technology Modeling & Analysis Group (TSA-7), Mail Stoop F-609, Los Alamos, NM, 87545-1663, charu@lanl.gov

Integrated Production Planning and Control (IPPC) framework is a combination of philosophies, concepts, tools and techniques to manage deviations in expectations of the demand and supply functions of a production system. Applying IPPC to a cooperative supply chain (whereby its members achieve coordination through negotiations and compromise, in honoring commitments made to each other) brings out unique modeling and analysis perspectives relevant in complex multi-criteria problem solving environments. In this research, we describe a perspective on modeling and analysis of push, pull, and synchronous flow approaches of IPPC in a cooperative systems framework, applied to a textile supply chain.


Charu SA4.4 On Cooperative Supply Chain Problem Formulations, Chandra Charu, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technology Modeling & Analysis Group (TSA-7), Mail Stoop F-609, Los Alamos, NM, 87545-1663, charu@lanl.gov

A cooperative supply chain is an arrangement whereby its members achieve coordination through negotiations and compromise, in honoring commitments made to each other. Such an arrangement offers opportunities to design, model, and analyze problems with local perspective of a member and global view of a group. However, this leads to the emergence of divergent structures of problems, thereby increasing their complexity. Solving such problems requires formulating these in relation to a framework, recognizing their domain dependence within the domain independent environment of the supply chain. In this paper, it is shown how taxonomy can be applied as the basis to study general principles of classification and relationships in a supply chain and using it to standardize and recommend generic problem-solving approaches.


Chen SD5.4 Algorithms for Dynamic Lot Size Models with Marketing Consideration, Hsin-Der Chen, Department of Business Administration, Providence University, 200 ChungChi Rd., Shalu 43301, TAIWAN, hdchen@simon.pu.edu.tw 

This paper extends the single item dynamic lot size model to a new version in which both production and marketing issues are considered simultaneously. This new model decides lot size, price, demand of the product, and marketing expenditure. A dynamic programming algorithm is investigated to solve this integrated model. This algorithm has been shown to be effective and efficient. 


Christodoulidou TB3.2 Push and Pull: Sequential, Parallel or Integrated?, Natasa Christodoulidou, Arizona State University Management Department, Box 874006, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4006, christodoulidou@asu.edu, Susan Amundson, Arizona State University, Mgt. Dept., Box 874006, Tempe AZ 85287-4006, susan.amundson@asu.edu, Kevin Dooley, Arizona State University, Mgt. Dept., Box 874006, Tempe AZ 85287-4006, kevin.dooley@asu.edu 

This paper will focus on an extensive history of the push and pull approaches and how they are functioning and affect new product innovation. Integrated product development occurs as a result of the use of cross-functional teams, overlapping activities, and design for manufacturing (DFM). Integrated product innovation also reduces the distinction between technology push and market pull, and consequently integrated the push and pull drivers of innovation. We conclude by stressing that the most successful new product innovation arises as a result of the integration of the push and pull approaches.

Word Document             Zip file


Cochran SC8.1 Design of Manufacturing Cells Using a Combination of New and Existing Equipment, David Cochran, M.I.T. 35-130, 77 Mass Ave., Cambridge, MA, 2139, Dcochran@mit.edu, James Duda, M.I.T., 35-130, 77 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, Jwduda@mit.edu, Jochen Linck, M.I.T., 35-135, 77 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, Linck@mit.edu, Shahram Taj, University of Detroit, Mercy College of Business Administration, P.O. Box 19900, Detroit, MI 48219-0900, Tajs@udmercy,edu 

A case study of the design of manufacturing cells combining new and existing machines is presented, showing the difficulties that can result with such a system. Simply changing the layout (arranging machines into cells) could provide some benefits, but these benefits were offset by a high level of required investment. The reasons for the increased costs include: poorly matched cycle times, machine downtime, complex materials handling, and long changeovers. Simulation analysis was used to measure the effects of improved reliability and reduced changeovers. Combining these improvements with simplified material handling was shown to increase cell performance and reduce investment significantly. 


Colque TB2.2 Analysing the bureaucratic flow at the Escola Tecnica Federal da Paraiba B ETFPB, Cesar Colque, Universidade Federal Da Paraiba, Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Cidade Univeritaria Campus I - CEP 58.051-970 - Joao Pessoa, Paraiba-BRAZIL, secmestrado@producao.ct.ufpb.br, Djosete Da Costa, Universidade Federal Da Paraiba Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Cidade Univeritaria Campus I - CEP 58.051-970 - Joao Pessoa, Paraiba-BRAZIL, Heremita Brasileiro, Universidade Federal Da Paraiba Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Cidade Univeritaria Campus I - CEP 58.051-970 - Joao Pessoa, Paraiba-BRAZIL, Maria Gomes, Universidade Federal Da Paraiba, Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Cidade Univeritaria Campus I - CEP 58.051-970 - Joao Pessoa Paraiba-BRAZIL. 

The current microelectronic automation process, that seems not reversible, in production systems, at the factories and services organizations, has established important characteristics in this century, causing deep changes in the production manage ways and labour questions, provoking meaning consequences to the organizations and the society. In that view, this paper objects, based on the Methods Engineering Theory, to analyze the bureaucrat flow at the Escola Tecnic A Federal da Paraiba - ETFPB - BRAZIL - intentioning, with this analysis, provide improvements on the organizations flow and services, intending to permit productivity improvements and customer satisfaction. 


Conti TB3.1 The Effect of JIT System Design Choices on Worker Job Stress, Robert Conti, Bryant College, Douglas Price, Smith Field, RI, -2917, Rconti@bryant.edu 

Just-in-time production can achieve high quality and low cost. Published case studies, however, indicate that it can also lead to high levels of job stress. These studies treat JIT as a binomial event - either implemented or not. In reality, JIT requires design choices in many areas such as time standards, layout, work teams and job design. Using Industrial Engineering concepts, the paper disaggregates JIT into major design options and uses the Karasek Job Stress Model to hypothesize their effects on stress levels. The nine testable hypotheses are a preclude to an empirical study and offer preliminary guidance for balancing JIT performance with the well-being of the workers. 


Cosgrove SB1.1 A Methodology Based on Multivariate Entropy for Measuring Uncertainty in Project Network Models, William J. Cosgrove, Cal Poly Univ. Pomona Tech & Operations Mgt. Dept, Pomona, CA, 91768, wcosgrove@csupomona.edu.

The proposed study develops a methodology for classifying stochastic project network models (e.g., GERT/VERT models) in terms of their random behavior as described by random variables for network structure, completion time, and critical path. The classification system is based on the multivariate entropy function, and is shown as a tool which could be included in the validation process of project network simulation models.


Coye TB6.4 On board - at sea: Service delivery on transatlantic liners during the golden age of travel, Ray Coye, DePaul University, 1 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604, rcoye@wppost.depaul.edu

The era of the huge express steamships began in 1907 with the launching of the Lusitania and Mauretania, and ended with the advent in 1958 of scheduled transatlantic jet flights. During the intervening years steamship companies consistently delivered a valued "bundle of services" in an environment characterized by the vagaries of weather, dramatic changes in economic and social conditions, technological advances, and political upheaval. This paper discusses the challenges involved in providing the voyaging public multiple levels of service consistent with the prevailing social class structure. Consideration of the nature of the services delivered, the structure and organization of the delivery system, and the immense staffing requirements provides insights into service management in this essential industry. 


Coye SC6.3 Managing Expectations at the Point of Delivery in a Service System, Ray Coye, Depaul University, 1 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604, rcoye@wppost.depaul.edu 

"Right here." "Right now." "Tailored to me." "Served up the way I like it." "If new consumers spelled their expectations out on a billboard, this is what you would read." This quote from a recent book advertisement (R. McKenna - Real Time: Preparing for the age of the never satisfied customer) emphatically directs our attention to the expectations consumers bring to the delivery system. These expectations are beliefs about future events which are presumed to influence consumer satisfaction and assessments of overall service quality. This paper suggests an outline of the process through which expectations operate at the point of delivery. Implications for management focus on service provider behavior at the point of delivery and on control of cues which influence consumer expectations. 

Cunningham SA2.3 Product Architecture Indicators in Concept Design, Timothy Cunningham, MIT Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development, Room E40-243, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, Daniel E. Whitney, Sr. Research Scientist, MIT Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development, Room E40-243, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139.

Product architecture choices have a profound effect on producibility of a product. Supply chain management and final assembly are two of the areas affected. Architecture decisions are usually thought to require information not usually available during concept design and yet many aspects of architecture are explicitly or implicitly decided during concept design anyway. This paper describes a method of anticipating the influence of architecture decisions during concept design, including ways of diagramming alternate architectures and proposed metrics for using the diagrams to flag potential future problems. The method is based on defining "chains of delivery" of important customer requirements and determining how alternate architectures reinforce or interrupt these chains.


da Costa SD4.2 Some insights about Inventory Management, Djosete Santos da Costa, Mestrado em Engenharia de Produca da Universidade Federal da Pariaba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, , Gbakker@summer.com.br, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mestrado em Engenharia de Produca da Universidade Federal da Pariaba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I - 58051-970.  

This paper shows some concepts about Inventory Management, objecting to indicate succinctly what should be observed to be effectively advantageous for the organization to acquire and support inventories. So, it should consider some aspects about the organizational culture, in each organization, likewise the context that the organization is inserted, therefore it's possible to observe that some approaches propose the total inventory elimination. However, the organization attitude, in each sector, should be carefully analyzed.


Darsa TA3.2 Computer Integrated Inventory Control, Satria Darsa, Kotakpos 1389, Bandung 40013, Indonesia, satria@ti.itb.ac.id 

The effective introduction of the computer integrated inventory concept requires a coordinated effort to use and control both the knowledge, information, data and material within an organization. This paper describes a framework of a data exchange inventory control system together with a case study undertaken jointly with a rail-way company which transports coal from a mining site to a harbour at a distance of approximately 300 kilometer. It controls the flow of information on rolling-stocks of the wagons carrying coal back and forth. The coal is used to generate electricity in a steam power plant. 


De Abreu SC9.1 Strategic Use of Information Technology in the Logistic Area - A Meta-Analysis of Brazilian Companies, Aline De Abreu, UFSC/CTC/EPS, ex Postal 476, Prolis.SC, Brazil, 88010-870, allne@eps.ufsc.br   Nevel Arguello, , nebel@eps.ufsc.br 

This paper discusses the results obtained on a previous research about the logistic organization of 10 Brazilian companies (Da Silva, 1995), with emphasis to the use of information technology (IT) to achieve competitiveness and flexibility. A meta analysis of the results is done and we further extend the investigation using the IT strategic positioning matrix proposed by Fernandes and Alves (1992). We applied this matrix to define how the companies are using IT and to determine possible strategies to move them to a better position. This matrix proved to be useful to accomplish these objectives, although we conclude that it is somewhat generic and we suggest that further studies need to be better adapt the matrix's attributes to the logistic function in order to improve the analysis and proposal of strategies.


De Boer SA3.3 Multi-Project Rough-Cut Planning, R. De Boer, Production and Operations Management Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands, J.M.J. Schutten, Production and Operations Management Group Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

In many multi-project organizations, there is a clear need of hierarchical capacity planning. In the early stages of a project, only rough estimates of capacity requirements are available. For this purpose, we introduce the multi-project rough cut capacity planning problem. This problem aims to minimize the use of non-regular capacity, where capacity requirements, are only stated in time units (e.g. man hours). In addition, precedence constraints, time windows, and minimum durations should be satisfied. We propose two heuristic algorithms and show computational results on problems with different characteristics. Finally we discuss the potential of these algorithms for some extensions to the multi-project rough cut capacity planning problem, as defined here. 


De Gusmao SC4.2 The Customization Influence on the Supply Chain: An Analytical View, Sergio Luiz De Gusmao, PUCRS - Av. Ipiranga 6681 - Ioandar salsa 102, Porto Alegre/RS, Brasil, Slgusmao@nutecnet.com.br 

This paper intends to show that a new tendency in production systems, called Customization, is found in supply chain, together with Mass Production is and Loan Production and, against the idea that Mass Production outmoded, to show that instead of exclusion, the paradigms can leave simultaneously along the supply chain. With this foundation, suggest a model for support a diagnosis in order to permit that the enterprise can take a better supply chain identification where it is positioned, and finding a better position which support it for a best performance. 


de Lima TB8.1 Queuing Theory Application - A Case Study in Brazil, Cesar Emanoel Barbosa de Lima, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, 58051-970, gbakker@summer.com.br, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, CAMPUS I. 

The perspective over competition between organizations had taken managers to review internal attitudes into the corporations, managed by them in front of the society, then to be a matter of, not only, the profit factor or the market perform, but, and specially, the organization survive in a dynamic market, that claim innovations to satisfy its necessities and desires. The TELPA Corporation, as a service organization, in telecommunications sector, despite to be monopolist, has tried to offer services with quality and professionalism, therefore this study has showed a planning fail, about goals, that affect directly the mission in any organization, its potential and actual customers, with a time factor problem, in other words, a poor preestablished service goals dimension. This study was did in a commercial service shop, at the mentioned organization, from October 01 to 10, with one hour observations, objecting to apply queue theory and to stabilize the manage staff to one of poor satisfaction causes: the standby queues and processing customers time. 


de Lima TB8.2 Flexibility and Manufacturing: An Analysis of Available Contributions, Cesar Emanoel Barbosa de Lima, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, 58051-970, Gbakker@summer.com.br, Nehemias Rodrigues de Alencar, Jr., Mestrado em Engenharia de Peoducao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I-58051-970-Joao Pessoa/Paraiba, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I-58051-970-Joao Pessoa/Paraiba. 

Considering the outstanding changes in the society and, as a consequence, in the firms in general, the flexibility in the services and production systems is a big factor, mainly to keep after the paradigms of quality, productivity and competitiveness. The flexible environment characterizes the improvement of technology al innovations demanded by the market. It focuses in the points of relevant importance to the management of the shifts in the organizational culture and in the evaluative conjecture of the society. It is understood that to be kept in the market and in order to chase new collections of potential clients, it is necessary the adequation of a flexible structure able to shape to the trends and to the satisfaction of the clients in the context of the manufacturing and in the services. 


de Lima SD7.2 Productivity Perform Evaluation Resulting from Cellular Lay Out Implantation in Medium and Small Size Industries, Cesar Emanoel Barbosa de Lima, Mestrado em Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, 58051-970, Gbakker@summer.com.br, Djosete Santos da Costa, Mestrado em Engenharia de Peoducao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I-58051-970-Joao Pessoa/Paraiba, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Mestrado em Engenharia de Peoducao da Universidade Federal da Paraiba Cx Postal 5045, Cidade Universitaria, Campus I-58051-970-Joao Pessoa/Paraiba. 

This paper evaluating the performance of the labor's productivity measures originated with the implantation of cellular layout in the industries of small and medium size. The research shows an increase of 57% of the productivity. Its observed too an increase of the company's operating flexibility as consequence of the introduced innovations on a par cellular manufacturing. The constation of those benefits propose the indication of news investigations, intending verify to the viability of cellular layout for the clothing's industry assuming to as generative instrument of the productivity.


De Reyck SA1.1 A Classification Scheme for Project Scheduling Problems, Willy Herroelen, Department of Applied Economics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Bert De Reyck, Department of Applied Economics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven.

The great variety of project scheduling problems motivates the introduction of a systematic notation that can serve as the basis for a classification scheme. We introduce a scheme similar to the standard classification scheme used in the machine scheduling literature. It is composed of three fields a*b*g*. a describes the resource characteristics, b the activity characteristics and g the performance measure. We illustrate the use of the classification scheme by applying it to the characterization of various project scheduling problems. We also discuss the relationships between various scheduling problems using graphs showing the interrelations among the values of the classification parameters.


Dias TB9.1 Why do managers use computer technology? Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, Donaldo Dias, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Grad School of Bus. Admin., COPPEAD, P.O. Box 68514, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, CEP-RJ 21949-900, Donaldo@coppead.ufrj.br 

Survey data gathered from 79 operations managers was used to know their motivation for using computer technology in the workplace. Three positively interrelated motivators for computer usage were found: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment. Usefulness is an example of extrinsic motivation whereas enjoyment is intrinsic. Usefulness and enjoyment were found to be related to an increase in the prestige managers felt for using computers. No relation was found between increase in prestige and ease of use. Managers felt less anxiety in using computers when they perceived them to be easy to use. 


Dong SB4.3 A Supply Chain Model of Vendor Managed Inventory, Yan Dong, 3430 VMH, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, ydong@mbs.umd.edu, Kefeng Xu, 3430 VMH, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. 

Vendor managed inventory (VMI) has quickly become a popular material management method recently. However, confusion exists as to why and when it is effective. This paper presents a buyer-seller supply chain model, and evaluates how the adoption of an VMI program affects each of the channel members respectively. In particular, it is shown that VMI will effectively reduce the total costs of the system, even without changing either firm's cost characteristics. When purchasing quantity stays the same, VMI could lead to a higher buyer profit and purchasing price, and a lower supplier profit. Alternatives for further improvement are suggested and evaluated.


Dreyfus TA4.2 Exploring The Impact of JIT and ISO 9000 Registration on Quality Management, Paul Dreyfus, Dept. of Management, Athens State College, Athens, AL, 35611, Maling Ebrahimpour, Dept. of Management, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881. 

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of JIT implementation, ISO 9000 registration, and "business as usual" on companies quality management activities. Companies in this study have been grouped into four categories: (1) companies that received ISO 9000 registered, (2) companies that implemented JIT and received ISO 9000 registered, (3) companies that implemented JIT and are not ISO 9000 registered, and (4) companies that neither have ISO 9000 registered and nor implemented JIT. A survey was used to examine the how each category of companies deal with product quality issues in a manufacturing environment. A MANOVA analysis was used to determine if there was any statistical differences between the four groups. 


Ecker SB9.4 Scheduling of Resource Tasks, Klaus Ecker, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Institut fuer Informatik, Leibnizstrasse 19, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, ecker@informatik.tu-clausthal.de 

In many applications e.g. from operations research, in particular production planning systems, optimal strategies for scheduling given sets of activities or tasks in some optimal manner are required . In this paper we deal with resource constrained scheduling problems where tasks may require during their execution specified amounts of various scarce resources. In addition, the order of task execution may be restricted by some given precedence constraints. The objective is to construct schedules of minimum makespan for given sets of tasks. Results obtained in this area show that finding an optimal solution is NP-hard in most cases. In this paper an exact method called SIT-graph algorithm is presented. Though this approach is of exponential time complexity in general, it allows to solve interesting and practically important classes of scheduling problems in polynomial time. 


Eisenhower SB4.4 The Strategic Management of the Supply Chain, Etienne Eisenhower, Ecole des Hautes=C9tudes Commerciales, 3000, Chemin de la C=F4te-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal (Quebec) Canada H3T 2A7, eisenhower.etienne@hec.ca 

The idea that a company can be viewed as a vertically and horizontally linked chain of input and output activities emerged in the early 1980's and has now become accepted as a competitively useful paradigm. What is now referred to as Supply Chain Management has been recognized by many management practitioners and thinkers as an important set of tools that explains a large part of the superior competitive performance of companies like Walmart, FEDEX, Bennetton, to name only a few. It is proposed i the emergent literature in the field that these companies conceive of and manage their operating activities as if the whole business were an unbroken set of transformation and delivery processes that move goods and services from suppliers to customers, and that the management process that achieved this fundamental vision partly explains the superior performance that we observe in leading-edge companies in both service and manufacturing. This paper will outline the mgt. process that seeks to design and display the supply chain to create sustainable competitive advantage. It will pinpoint and discuss the critical elements of the approach to supply chain mgt. that brings the entire supply chain under the ambit and discipline of corporate strategy and makes it pursue and achieve corporate strategic goals. 


Erdei  SA8.2 The application of SPC methods in a furniture production process to enhance TQM, Janos Erdei, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. Of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary, jano@vvg.bme.hu, Jozsef Topar, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. Of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary. 

After the social and economic changes in Hungary, the Hungarian companies had to face the requirements of the highly developed market economy. To preserve their competitive position, many of them have introduced quality systems. Success in the long run, however, needs the quality controlling of previously neglected production processes which have a determining influence on product quality. In company life, the lack of SPC experienced and experts leads to several problems in Hungary. The presentation demonstrates these difficulties by analyzing the production process of a furniture producing company. 


Erdmann SD2.1 The Production Planning and Control in a small Clothes Producing Company: Product and Process Direct Costs Simulation Exercise, Rolf Hermann Erdmann, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CSE/CAD/CPGA, Campus Universitario da Trindade, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil, 88040-900, ac@cse.ufsc.br, Aldo Cosentino, Universitsdade Federal de Santa Catarina, CSE/CAD/CPGA, Campus Universitario da Trindade, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC,Brazil 88040-960. 

The Small and Micro Companies (PME) represent an important segment in the Brazilian economy. In fact expression of the PME companies in the economy is substantial, 93.44% of the Brazilian industries are small and micro companies, representing 21% of Brazilian PIB, and responsible for the absorption of approximately 70% of the busy labor. In spite of this importance, PME do not use modern management techniques, mainly with respect to the production administration. Research guided by SEBRAE (1997), in addition, showed that the PME use very frequently, programs, techniques and methods concerning to the quality and productivity increase. In this work, a production exercise is presented, and that exercise is nothing else than a simulator which starts from variables of planning of the product and of the process, in a small company of clothes. The work is complemented with an example, in which it can observe the current direct costs of production, obtained by using of a certain group of variables, in an close integration between production and costs.

erdman.doc          erdman.zip

Faull SB5.2 Manufacturing Strategy - Suppliers and Customers, Norman Faull, Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, Portswood Road, Green Point 8001, South Africa, nfaull@gsb2.uct.ac.za 

South African manufacturers are having to learn to live in the global market after years of isolation and protection; some are going under whilst other are thriving. Company A, a manufacturer of bread baking equipment, has refocused operations and begun winning orders in many other parts of the world. In this paper we report on a study in which we conducted manufacturing strategy audits on Company A and two of its suppliers to assess the 'pull' effect on the strategy of the two suppliers that Company A's strategy has had on them. In addition the paper reflects on the audit methodology. 

faull.doc          faull.zip

Feitler SA9.2 The Navy Sails to Paperless Procurement: Using ANSRS, the Automated Non-Standard Requisitioning System, Jane N. Feitler, Systems Mgt. Dept., Code SM/Fj, Naval PostGrad. School, Monterey, CA, 93943, Jfeitler@nps.navy.mil 

Incentivized by Vice President Gore and his EDI/EC paperless environment initiative and budget cuts, the Navy Supply System Command (NAVSUP) developed a pc-based procurement software package to streamline the processes in supporting both afloat and ashore customers. ANSRS, the Automated Non-Standard Requisitioning System, supports continuing efforts to reduce costs of operations through standardization, centralization, downsizing, and interconnectivity. The package links the customer, technical screeners, and buyers. ANSRS is one of the few NAVY projects funded by the DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) program. Saving in terms of time, processing, and personnel will be addressed using a "before and after" scenario.


Feitler SA9.3 Academia Meets the Military: Helping Design the Joint Strike Fighter, Jane N. Feitler, Systems Mgt. Dept., Code SM/Fj, Naval Post Grad. School, Monterey, CA, 93943, Jfeitler@nps.navy.mil, Cdr. Thomas R. Hamman, Assistant Commander for Logistics, Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, MD 20670-1626, hammantr.jfk@navair.navy.mil.

The U.S. military is finally designing their equipment using supply chain theories logisticians have been preaching for years. Their next-generation war plane is being designed incorporating customers views and addressing standardization, centralization, and support concerns. The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is currently being designed by Boeing and Lockheed Martin as the next generation aircraft to be used by all services. This paper analyzes the logistics support needed to maintain the aircraft for desired flight demands. It specifically addresses bottlenecks in providing service within the logistics pipeline.


Ferke SA5.3 The Relationship between corporate strategy and manufacturing management based on experiences in Hungary, Janos Ferke, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. Of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary, ferke@vvg.bme.hu

The presentation introduces how the implementation of strategic management is affected by the changing environment in Hungary, focusing on the roles of managers and corporate culture. It shows the significant relationship between strategic management and manufacturing management, with special regard to the possible applications.

Fields SD3.3 Teaching POM Using Active-Learning Techniques, Paul J. Fields, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 93940, pjfields@nps.navy.mil, Thomas P. Moore, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 

We describe an innovative, one semester, eight-credit hour course for business majors. The course strongly emphasizes active-learning rather than passive-learning and integrates together all of the quantitative techniques related to production and operations management. These are often among the topics students find the most challenging yet through this course the students achieved an exceptionally high level of concept mastery. We describe the structure and distinctive features of the course and we present the students' evaluations of their experience. We also provide our observations on the key aspects necessary for success in teaching POM concepts.


Fields TA6.2 Improving Health Care Services Operations Management in an International Setting, Paul J. Fields, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 93943, pjfields@nps.navy.mil, James A. Scaramozzino, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, jascaram@nps.navy.mil 

We describe a process of collaborative pursuit to define operational problems and search for solutions to those problems to improve health care services operations management. We present the results of applying this process in health care operations in over twenty countries around the world. The process draws on all of the resources available both countries around the world. The process draws on all of the resources available both internally and externally for a country to enhance the operational effectiveness of the country's health care delivery system. The process uses open systems planning in five phases to facilitate the development and implementation of a strategic action plan for improved operational efficiency. 


Filho SC7.2 Analysis of the Dysfunctions Between the Advanced Manufacturing Techniques and the Plant Performance Measures, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Universidade Federal Da Paraiba, Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Cidade Univeritaria Campus I - CEP 58.051-970 - Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, BRAZIL, secmestrado@producao.ct.ufpb.br 

Many organizations, in the spite of operating advanced manufacturing systems, have not still modernized their performance evaluation procedures. The main target of this paper is to show the results of the research realized in the agribusiness french sector. The study shows that the most part (85%) of the adopted indicators are related with the traditional industrial costs systems, making it difficult to apply a more adequate new product configuration evaluation. In accord with the research data, the "operational software productivity index", for example, isn't implanted in anyone production unit studied. The others important productivity indicators, just as: waste index, scrap and rework, inventory turnover and devolution, the cadence measure, set-up and wait, strongly related with the new production methods, are not observed for the companies. This fact appoint the existence of a low correlation between the manufacturing techniques adopted and the measurement performance used in the process evaluation.


Filho SD7.3 What's Difficult about the Productivity Measurement Process in the Factory Plant?, Cosmo Severiano Filho, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Centro de Tecnologia, Centro de Tecnologia, Nucleo de Engenharia de Producao, Caixa Postal 5045, Campus I, Cidade Univeritaria, CEP: 58.051-970-Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil, CEP:58.051-970, Secmestrado@producao.ct.ufpb.br 

Many organizations say to have serious difficulties related with the productivity evaluation process. In the research realized with the french foods industry's, the companies studied appointing diverse problems related with the productivity measurement process of factory plant. This paper analyses the results, indicating the following data: insufficient and inadequate quantification of the costs, in existence of a central cost's department, absence of more accurate information of the costs accounting (40% of the companies studied), low level of integration of company functional areas; delay in the information delivered of the production control and planning (PCP), low level integration between of PCP and a managerial accounting (20% of the companies).


Finch TB4.4 The Use of Internet Conversations to Improve Product Quality: Conformation to the Kano Model of Quality Perception, Byron Finch, Mgt. Dept., Miami Univ., Oxford, OH, 45056, Finchbj@muohio.edu 

The Kano Model suggests that consumer perceptions of quality fall into three levels: Expected, satisfying, and exciting quality. In this study all Usenet newsgroups were monitored for 12 months for posts mentioning a particular tool manufacturer. The resulting archive of over 1600 posts from over 50 newsgroups has been coded. Preliminary examination shows over 1/3 evaluating the company's products. These posts will be analyzed to see if how they follow Kano's model. The types of quality issues discussed will have implications for how manufacturers can use this type of information to improve products.


Fiod TA8.2 Technology to Production Planning Solution in Real Case, Miguel Fiod, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP, Santa Catarina, Barsil, 88040-900, Labsad@eps.ufsc.br, Joao Castro, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP, Rodolfo Florence, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP. 

Production planning problems are quite common in companies. Several studies and methodologies were developed for their solution, involving different operational research areas. Recently, it was suggested as a doctorate work came true by and large at UFSC and South Florida University the algorithm MASGA (modified Active Scheduling Generation) That consider carefully the production system real variables. The purpose of this work is the practice of this work is the practice applicant of this technical. The used algorithm considers all the production systems real variable, and with sophisticated search routines, come to interesting results. It was made some changes, to become the theory that was cited before more functional. Using a time scale that obeys the company calendar, variable work journeys, etc.


Fitzsimmons SD3.4 Saving Operations Management from Extinction, James A. Fitzsimmons, Department of Management, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712, jfitz@mail/utexas.edu 

Given the declining trend in US manufacturing employment, future opportunities for business school graduates in manufacturing will be as scarce as that for agriculture. Operations management needs to face the economic reality that a continued emphasis on manufacturing will be viewed as irrelevant for business students as placement data illustrated. However, a refocus to service operations is a natural transition because in services "the process is the product." For service firms operations is central to the core business and is multi-functional in scope encompassing behavior, marketing, operations and information technology. Unlike manufacturing which is associated with engineering service operations naturally belongs in the business school. 


Fleury SB5.3 The Changing Pattern of Operations Management in Developing Countries: The Case of Brazil, Afonso Fleury, Caixa Postal 61548, 05498 , Sao Paulo, Brazil, acfleury@usp.br 

This study analyses the changes that are taking place in Brazilian industry, recently involved in the process of productive globalization it shows that drastic changes in terms of strategies, organization and management are in course, both in terms of transnational and local enterprises. Knowledge intensive functions such as R&D, strategic management and management systems are being transferred abroad by TNC's and the logistics function is becoming the most "strategic" function for their subsidiaries. Brazilian enterprises which succeed in operating in global productive chains are adopting similar structures. On the long run, that change in the pattern of operations management will have negative impacts for local formation competencies. 


Fliedner TA5.1 The Journey Towards Agility, Gene Fliedner, DIS Dept., Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI, 48309, Fliedner@oakland.edu, Robert Vokura, Eng. Tech. & Ind. Distr. Dept. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3367, vokura@entc.tamu.edu 

Historically, U.S. firms have increased production volumes to gain economies of scale and operating efficiencies. Quality, dependability, and flexibility have more recently become competitive weapons. In today's dynamic, global marketplace, some have suggested that the next competitive dimension will be agility. Current research suggests cumulative and lasting improvements of strategic capabilities can be achieved if they are developed in a specific sequence. This paper: (1) reviews the historical competitive environment and changes in strategic responses, (2) reviews relevant research on competitive capabilities and suggested trade-offs in these capabilities, and (3) offers a model which suggests how firms may build cumulative and lasting improvements in strategic competitive capabilities including agility 


Florence SD5.2 ABC/ABM - Application on small and average companies, Rodolfo Florence, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, rft@eps.ufsc.br, Miguel Fiod, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, labsad@eps.ufsc.br, Joao Castro, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, eps1jee@mbox1.ufsc.br 

During the last years we have come across simultaneous revolutions on market field, these are of economical, technological and administrative kind as results we have an environment in a crescent competitively and each time faster changes. To allow the progress in this new context lots of company management technical have been developed in the last two decades. Among these technical the ABC/ABM is emphasized. The ABC, expense based on activities, is the technicians process to the survey of the activities involved in the functioning process of the company. It is based essentially in the tracing of the costs to the activities and the conduction of these activities to the final products, allowing a more rational management of the costs, leading for each product of business department of the company, on the costs that really were involved for its obtainment. Eventually the ABM, management based on expense by activities, is a process that uses the information produced by ABC to manage a company or business. This tool has in view to serve the client and long for the improvement of competitively and profitability of the company. However, it's perceivable that is a privation in the systems market in this way just because it's a recent technical. The purpose of this work is to develop a technology that allows a fast and easy implantation of this expense system, by a complete information system and applicable to a big number of business or production companies. 


Fredendall SD8.1 Protective Capacity, Machine Breakdowns and Bottleneck Shiftiness, Lawrence Fredendall, Clemson University, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson, SC, 29634, flawren@clemson.edu, J. Wayne Patterson, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29364, Janis Miller, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29364. 

Lawrence and Buss (1994) examined the influence of protective capacity on bottleneck shiftiness and flow time measures. This paper extends their work to investigate how protective capacity in an environment with random machine breakdowns influences both bottleneck shiftiness and mean flow time. Specifically, the paper investigates several levels of protective capacity, the placement of the protective capacity and the choice of the shop floor control system.



Gerwin SA2.4 Integrating R&D and Manufacturing in an International Joint Venture, Donald Gerwin, Business School, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIS 5B6, dgerwin@ccs.carleton.ca, Darren Meister, Business School, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, dm17@qsilver.queensu.ca, Linda Moffat, Business School, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIS 5B6, Imoffat@carleton.ca

This paper presents a case study of integrating business functions between firms engaged in an international joint venture for new product development. The joint venture's task and task environment set the requirements for how much coordination of people and integration of information technology were needed. Differences in business processes and information technology between the partners hampered the coordination of people, and limited the feasible alternatives for information technology integration. Perceptions of transactional risks limited information flow among people, and motivated resistance to information technology integration. The paper also discusses solutions adopted by the partners to deal with the coordination and integration problems. 


Ghahramani SA7.4 Data Quality in Production and Operations Management Environment, Bahador Ghahramani, Engineering Management Department, School of Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, 65401, ghahrama@shuttle.cc.umr.edu 

This paper addresses continuous data quality management (DQM), an extremely critical factor in most marginal companies in the production and operations environment of today's highly competitive global market. DQM requires modern data tracking techniques that can provide some answers to the poor information accuracy and integrity that is prevalent in industry. The method presented in this paper is a Systems Engineering (SE) approach to DQM that incorporates modern scientific techniques such as Operations Research (OR), and Statistical Quality Control (SQC). This analysis enhances the Production and Operation Management (POM) efforts in tracking information as it is being processed through an Information System (IS) and identifies patterns of variations, errors, distortions, mishaps, and bottlenecks. 


Ghahramani TA1.1 Concurrent Engineering Applications in Production and Operations Management, Bahador Ghahramani, Engineering Management Department, School of Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, 65401, ghahrama@shuttle.cc.umr.edu 

Concurrent Engineering (CE) applications in production and operations management is a System Engineering (SE) approach that results in reduced time for bringing a product to market, improving productivity and service quality, and reducing life-cycle costs. CE coordinates, integrates, synchronizes production efforts and pertinent information essential to define, design, develop and deliver products and services, and maintain quality standards over a product's lifecycle. The CE method presented in this paper intends to increase the concurrency of multidisciplinary production and operations process by integrating modern scientific methods such as computer aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, group decision support systems, expert systems, and information systems.

Goffin SA1.4 Key Measures of Manufacturing Performance: UK/German Benchmarks, Keith Goffin, Marek Szwejczewski, Colin New, Rolf Pfeiffer and Betram Lohmüller, Cranfield School of Management, England, UK/ Export-Akademie Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Many manufacturing companies are looking for accurate data against which they can benchmark their performance. However, such information can be difficult to obtain, particularly in an international context. This paper describes a major research program created to collect comparable data on the performance of manufacturing plants in Germany and the UK. The program has enabled the first comprehensive comparison of performance between manufacturing plants in the two countries, the results presented are interesting-they indicate "best practices" and show where UK and German companies could improve. The paper also discusses the key issues in conducting international surveys of manufacturing performance


Goffin SD3.1 Operations management Teaching on European MBA Core Courses, Keith Goffin, Operations Management, Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, UK, MK43 0AL, k.goffin@cranfield.ac.uk 

This study investigated operations management (OM) teaching on MBA programs at ten leading European business schools. Although a number of researchers have previously investigated MBA teaching, none have focused on Europe. The results of a survey give a comprehensive picture of OM teaching at ten schools, including the course objectives, contents and pedagogies. Interestingly, although big variations exist in the amount of time allocated to OM at different schools, course content was surprisingly similar. This paper will be useful to OM faculty, as it is a source of data on both teaching strategies and the relevant literature on pedagogy.


Goodale SC6.4 An Integrated Market Utility-based Framework for Determining the Number of CSRs when Demand is Sensitive to Delay, John Goodale, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, 47306, jgoodale@bsu.edu, Rohit Verma, DePaul University, 1 E Jackson Blvd, Chicago, IL 60604, Madeleine Pullman, Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, mpullman@mail.cox.smu.edu 

A fundamental question for many organizations is how to deploy customer service representative (CSRs) in order to achieve desired waiting and processing times. This paper adapts an optimal service design model to planning service capacity when demand is sensitive to delay. The number of CSRs is obtained by maximizing profit that is make up of: 1) revenue from market share that is a function of customers expected waiting and processing times, and 2) cost of providing the service made up of, a) direct capacity costs, and b) fixed costs for the service. 


Grayson TB9.2 Putting Object Oriented Principles to Work in Today's Organization, James Grayson, College of Business Administration, Augusta State University, 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, GA, 30904, jgrayson@aug.edu, George Runger, Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, runger@asu.edu, Todd Schultz, College of Business Administration, Augusta State University, 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, GA 30904, tschultz@aug.edu 

Object oriented principles from information technology (IT) can help us understand and manage today's fluid and "webby" organizations (Runger and Ibrahim, 1996). Our presentation moves beyond acknowledgement of this fact to investigating how sound IT design principles can be adapted to management. Data flow documentation, object registries, boundary control, and interface definition, in particular, show promise in coping with complex organizational environments.


Gronalt TA8.3 Work order release and input sequencing for a printed circuit board assembly cell, Manfred Gronalt, University of Vienna, Bruenner Strasse 72, A-1210 Vienna, manfred.gronalt@univie.ac.at 

The selection of work orders to form a new batch to be released into the shop floor and the sequencing of individual orders within a batch are two problems which must be solved repeatedly. In the proposed approach solution procedures for the two sub-problems are presented, which are able to consider sequence dependent setup times for the component placement machines in the cell. The system performance is measured by a simulation model of the respective cell. In addition, local dispatching and sequencing rules are applied within the simulation model. A numerical study for different order arrival processes is conducted and the contribution of input sequencing to the system performance is shown. 


Grunow SA9.1 Optimization of Flexible SMD Assembly Systems, Martin Grunow, Dept. of Industrial Management, WIL-B-1-1, Technical University of Berlin, Wilmersdorfer Str. 148, D-10585, Berlin, Germany, , M.Grunow@ww.TU-Berlin.DE, Hans-Otto Gunther, Dept. of Industrial Management, WIL-B-1-1, Technical University of Berlin, Wilmersdorfer Str. 148, D-10585 Berlin, Germany, HO.Guenther@ww.TU-Berlin.DE 

In modern electronics manufacturing, highly automated assembly systems are used to place surface mount devices (SMD's) of a great variety onto printed circuit boards. In high-volume production, the dominant objective in scheduling the operations of such assembly equipment, most frequently of a Chip-Shooter type, is to minimize processing time. Due to the machine kinematics which allow for concurrent operations, machine set-up, placement sequence, and component retrieval have to be coordinated appropriately. One key to achieving minimal processing time is to take the placement specifics of the various component types into account. A heuristic solution procedure is presented which addresses these scheduling problems and which has produced impressive results in industrial practice. 


Guedes SD2.2 Implementation of Foreign of Administration Software: A Case Study, Carlos Ernando Guedes, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, guedes@eps.ufsc.br, Joao Castro, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, eps1jee@mbox1.ufsc.br, Rodolfo Florence, LSAD/EPS/CTC/UFSC, PB 476-CEP 88040 900, lsad@eps.ufsc.br 

The sector of Planning and Control of the Production should work as connection link between the information of the market and of another areas in industry, treating these information and transforming them in production plans and Replenishment of input. Among the tools that can facilitate the conversion of these information the more acquaintances they are the methodology MRP, the systems of Projects Management, the simulation software's, among others. Even so if the channels of information are precarious, the software results won't be felt. Due to the great contribution of foreign software in the Brazilian market, it has become necessary to adapt these packages to the Brazilian reality. The problem that we want to focus appears exactly in this stage of the planning. The main objective is to alert for problems that originate in the initial phase of implementation of administration software, due to the constant use of foreign software. 


Gunther SD9.1 LP-based heuristics for scheduling chemical batch processes, Hans-Otto Gunther, Dept. of Industrial Management, WIL-B-1-1, Technical University of Berlin, Wilmerdorfer Str. 148, D-10585, Berlin, Germany, HO.Guenther@ww.TU-Berlin.DE, Ferdinand Blomer, Dept. of Industrial Management, WIL-B-1-1, Technical University of Berlin, Wilmersdorfer Str. 148, D-10585, Berlin, Germany, f.bloemer@ww.TU-Berlin.DE 

A MIP model for scheduling chemical batch processes is presented. Since computational times are prohibitive for most problems of realistic size, a two-stage solution procedure is suggested. In the first stage an initial solution is derived by use of a LP-based heuristic. The proposed heuristic is based on a time grid which includes a limited number of feasible start-up periods. The second stage consists of an improvement step which aims to compress the initial schedule by left-shifting operations over the time-axis. As a result, near-optimal solutions are made possible for large size problems with only modest computational effort. 


Gupta SC4.3 Technology Choice and Supply Chain Relations, Sudheer Gupta, Faculty of Mgt., McGill Univ., 1001 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal QC, Canada, H3A 1G5, Gupta@management.mcgill.ca 

We study the impact of manufacturers' decision to choose between dedicated and flexible technologies on supply chains relations in presence of competition from other supply chains. A game-theoretic model is developed and various technology equilibria are identified. It is shown that technology adoption decision has significant impact on buyer-supplier relations and the nature of intermediate market structure.


Hans SA3.2 An integer linear programming approach for workload balancing in a produce-to-stock foundry, E.W. Hans, Production and Operations Management Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, S.L. van de Velde, Department of Decision and Information Sciences, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, P. O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

We formulate and solve the monthly production planning problem of balancing the required amount of melted iron per day, subject to given replenishment orders and many specific foundry restrictions, including an upper bound on the number of orders in process.

Hansmann SB2.2 Active Environmental Management of Manufacturing Companies, Karl-Werner Hansmann, Institute of Industrial Mgt., Von-Melle-Park 5, D-20146 Hamburg, Prof.Hansmann@t-online.de 

I present a mixed integer programming model for the production management of manufacturing companies intending to minimize the weighed sum of emitted pollutants provided that a minimum level of profit can be reached. The biggest problem of this approach is to find suitable weights for the different pollutants which reflect their relative harm to the environment. The emission limitations put down in environmental acts are provisionally used as production restrictions to get weights by applying duality theory. The problems of this approach are widely discussed and compared to those of other methods. 


Harris SC2.2 The Position of TQM in Management Rhetoric, C. Ruth Harris, Business, Wilfrid Laurier University, rharris@mach1.wlu.ca, R. Lyn Purdy, University of Western Ontario. 

Recent work in management fashions (Abrahamson 1997) suggest that forms of managerial control have oscillated between rational and normative approaches. Other researchers suggest (see for example, Lacoby, 1991) that forms of managerial control have progressed from coercive to normative based techniques. Past analyses of these patterns have not included TQM. We examine the development of TQM to determine its position relative to earlier approaches, to see if its form supports the progression theory or the wave theory. 


Henrick SB4.1 Environmental Issues Impacting Purchasing and Supply Management: A Multi-Country Perspective, Thomas E. Henrick, Department of Business Administration, Supply Chain Management, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-3706, Tom.Hendrick@asu.edu, George Zsidisin, Department of Business Administration, Supply Chain Management, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3706, george.zsidisin@asu.edu 

With increasing public awareness and potential overall reductions in cost, the adoption of environmentally sound purchasing policies and practices may provide firms with a competitive advantage in the marketplace (Mehta, 1994). This research explores gaps between purchasing organizations' current involvement in environmental activities and what purchasing professionals think their involvement levels should be. Comparisons are made among firms from the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom to investigate the role(s) that purchasing and supply management has in environmental issues within and among these respective countries. 


Hoeck SD9.4 SLSP - Simultaneous Lotsizing and Scheduling in a Job Shop Environment, Michael Hoeck, Institute of Industrial Mgt. University of Hamburg Von-Melle-Park 5, Hamburg, Germany, 20146, hoeck@ heomes2 . econ. univhamburg.de 

This paper provides an application oriented analysis of a multiple constraint scheduling called SLSP, which is designed to batch and sequence production orders simultaneously. The Simultaneous Lotsizing and Scheduling Procedure (SLSP) is easy to implement in a Shop Floor Control System and leads to good results for finite loading problems. Dependent on the data available and the goal of production control SLSP can be used to minimize production costs or with any other objective function, like minimizing the mean flow time or tardiness of the jobs. The approach is primarily based on a combination of regular dispatching rules and local search heuristics, such as Simulated Annealing, Threshold Accepting or Tabu Search. Additionally the procedure inherits a special routine to calculate lot sizes using the Minimum Machine Time (MMT) as a control parameter.


Jaraiedi SA7.1 Comparison of Deming's and Taguchi's Inspection Procedures Based on Variable Fraction Non-Conforming, Majid Jaraiedi, PO Box 6107, WVU, Morgantown, WV, 26506, jaraiedi@cemr.wvu.edu, Wafik Iskander, PO BOX 6107, WVU, Morgantown, WV 26505, isdander@cemr.wvu.edu, Sameer Madan, PO BOX 6107, WVU, Morgantown, WV 26505, smadan@wvu.edu 

The objective of this research was to evaluate Taguchi's and Deming's approaches to inspection based on the assumption of a variable fraction non-conforming. The fraction non-conforming from a process was assumed to follow a beta distribution. The effectiveness of the two approaches was established using the given values of mean and a range of variances of the beta distribution and various combinations of the cost parameters. The cost parameters that were considered included inspection cost per unit, the cost of rework and the cost incurred in case a defective is passed through undetected. 


Johnson TA6.3 Hospital Service Quality Measurement: an Empirical Assessment of Servqual and Servperf Scales, David Johnson, Artur Rocha, 164-402, Porto Alegre/RS Brazil, Cep.90450-170, david@fundatec.tche.br 

SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1988) and SERVPERF (Cronin & Taylor, 1992) scales have been employed to evaluate service quality in a multitude of industries. This study is an attempt to evaluate the practical usefulness and the psychometric proprieties of these multiple-item scales in accessing patients expectations and perceptions in the hospital service environment. Data were collected in four large hospitals with 2.120 patients. Results indicate the determinants to improve hospital overall service quality, service dimensionality and scales convergent validity. 


Johri TA7.4 Factors influencing the entry decisions of engineering mncs in asian markets, Lalit M. Johri, School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, G.P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 - Thailand, lmjohri@ait.ac.th, Chandra Shekar Kakal, Ramco Systems, India, kakal@rsi.ramco.com 

By incorporating the experience of companies operating in three different Asian countries, we examine the factors influencing entry decisions of multinational corporations. Political risk, which has been highlighted as a major factor influencing entry strategy in the previous researches appears to be of secondary importance when compared to government policies, as revealed by the experiences of MNCs in India and Thailand. The preference of MNCs to go for 100% investment is not because of the cultural distance of the countries, but the differences in the organizational culture of potential partners, which is often difficult to manage. 


Jones TB7.2 World Wide Web: An Effective Means of Overcoming the POM Life Cycle Decline Stage, Gerald Jones, 5245 N. Backer, M/S 7, Fresno, CA, 93740-8001, Geraldj@csufresno.edu, John Moghaddam, 5245 N. Backer, M/S 7, Fresno, CA, 93740-8001. 

Academic departments throughout the world are increasingly relying on the worldwide web as an effective means to communicate. This paper discusses the application of the web as an effective component in a total quality management program designed to overcome the life cycle decline stage of the five stage product life cycle theory for a POM program. The paper includes a discussion of life cycle theory as it applies to the evolution and life cycle of the Department's POM discipline.



Kaighobadi SD8.3 The Impact of the Internet of Effectiveness of Project Management: An Exploratory Study, Mehdi Kaighobadi, Florida Atlantic University, 220 SE 2nd Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 33301, kaighobad@fau.edu, Qing Hu, Florida Atlantic University, 220 SE 2nd Avenue, Ft. Laurderdale, FL 33301, qhy@fau.edu 

Projects are often characterized by a large number of interdependent activities. A major success factor in project management is the coordination among various activities. Many projects have failed due to the lack of coordination. Internet technology today has made it possible to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of communication among the various parties involved. The purpose of this exploratory research is to examine the impact of the internet as a tool of effective project management in terms of better coordination and possibly reducing the risk of budget over-runs and schedule slippage. 


Katok TA5.2 Flexibility Planning in Aviation Information, Elena Katok, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 80401, ekatok@mines.edu, William Tarantino, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, wtaranti@mines.edu, Alex Zakroff, Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., 55 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, CO 80112, azakroff@Jeppesen.COM 

Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc. is a leader in the aviation information industry, responsible for the maintenance manufacturing and distribution of flight manuals for most major airlines, package delivery companies, and private pilots. Currently, Jeppesen's production system is stressed from the increased demands for customized manuals. If this customization trend continues, the current production system is likely to become inadequate. We identify alternative production technology options for Jeppesen and analyze these options with a stochastic optimization model to determine the value of flexibility under uncertainty. 


Kieckhafer SB9.2 The Impact of Phantom Tasks on Scheduling in Manufacturing Systems, Roger Kieckhafer, Dept. of Comp. Science & Engineer, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0115, rogerk@cse.unl.edu, Axel Krings, Comp. Science Dept., Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-1010, krings@cs.uidaho.edu 

Recently, the concept of "Phantom Tasks" (tasks which take time to execute but occupy no resources) has been introduced into task systems. When integrated into a precedence graph containing "real tasks" (which do occupy processors), phantom tasks can "destabilize" non-preemptive schedules, causing real tasks to miss their deadlines. Phantom tasks have now been extended to handle time-coupled events, slack-time tuning, machine down-time, and clustered heterogenous systems, such as an FMS. This greatly simplifies computation of worst-case completion times in both fault-free and faulty manufacturing systems. This paper describes the phantom task concept and its applications in FMS control and design.


Koljonen TA7.1 Synergy in TOC Thinking Processes and System Dynamic Models, Elsa L. Koljonen, Anderson Schools of Management, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, MN 87131, Jkoljonen@aol.com, Richard A. Reid, Anderson Schools of Management, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, MN 87131, reid@anderson.unm.edu 

This paper illustrates how managerial understanding is enhanced through coupling TOC, a system-based philosophy, and system dynamics modeling, a system-based tool. The purpose is to demonstrate the utility of using system dynamics models to validate the results produced by the logic trees associated with analyzing and implementing Goldratt's "change sequence". Each of three system dynamics models will be presented to validate results from three logic trees, namely, current reality tree, future reality tree, and negative branch, that have been created to answer management's dilemma of "what to change?", "What to change to?", and "how to cause the change?", respectively. 


Koltai SD5.3 The design process of an activity based cost system at a chest freezer assembly plant, Tamas Koltai, Technical University of Budapest, Dept. Of Industrial Management, 1111 Budapest, Muegyetem RKP g. T. Bld., Hungary, koltai@vvg.bme.hu 

Activity based costing is one of the most important innovations in the field of costing and performance evaluation in operating systems. A case study is presented about the successful design and implementation of an ABC system at the chest freezer assembly plant. The strong international character of the implementation of the project and the interesting results provide information for both practitioners and researchers in this field. The presentation contains the company background, the current costing practice, illustrates the theoretical and pragmatic considerations of the design process and finally analyzes the difference between the old and new product costs. 


Koshal TA4.4 Redefining Excellence for the 21st Century, Manjulika Koshal, Ohio University, Copeland Hall, Athens, OH, 45701, mkoshall@ohiou.edu, Rajindar K. Koshal, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, rkoshall@ohiou.edu, Ashok Gupta, Ohio University, Copeland Hall, Athens, OH 45701, agupta@ohiou.edu 

As the world shrinks to a global village, Asian giants are learning to harness their competitive strengths and become world-beaters. With the influx of such a variety of successful, leading multinationals in the global arena, a serious attempt is being made to redefine "excellence in the global context."  Based on the personal interviews of a few CEOs of top performing companies, this paper tries to explore how an emerging nation like India perceives "excellence," defines TQM and measures "global success" in the light of the enormous challenges of the 21st century.


Krishnan SA2.1 Structured Flexibility: An Approach to Integrating Speed and Flexibility in New Product Development, Viswanathan Krishnan, CBA 4.202, Business School, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, krishnan@mail.utexas.edu

Speed in new product development has attracted significant research attention in the last decade. One of the recommendations made to execute the NPD process in a timely manner is to reach a sharp definition of the new product early in the process. Recent research in highly dynamic industries, however, shows that this may result in a firm getting locked into a set of product specifications that are out of tune with the market. We discuss how speed and flexibility may be integrated in new product development for competitive advantage. 


Kumar SC4.4: Supply Chain Management, a Passing Fad or a Fundamental Change, Sameer Kumar, Professor, Programs in Manufacturing Systems & Engineering, Univ. of St. Thomas, Mail #OSS101, 2115 Summit Ave., St. Paul, MN, 55105-1079, Skumar@stthomas.edu 

Supply chain management is a major issue in many industries as companies realize the importance of creating an integrated relationship with their suppliers and customers. Managing the supply chain has become a way of improving competitiveness by reducing uncertainty and improving customer service. The research analyzes various issues important to supply chain management and provides broader awareness of supply chain principles and concepts. The role of process reengineering, methods engineering, and information technology to synchronize the supply chain is described in a framework that creates the appropriate structure and installs proper controls in the enterprise and other constituents in the chain. 



Lai TA9.2 Sequencing with Uncertain Numerical Data for Makespan Minimization, Tsung-Chyan Lai, Department of Industrial and Business Management, National TAIWAN University, 50, Lane 144, Keelung Road Section 4, Taipei 106, , TAIWAN, , tclai@ccms.ntu.edu.tw, Yuri Sotskov, Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Belarusian Academy of Sciences, Belarus. 

This paper deals with the scheduling problem in which the structural input data (I.e., precedence and capacity constraints) are fixed before stage of scheduling while all we know before scheduling about the processing time of an operation, the job release time and due date are their upper and lower bounds. After improving the mixed graph model, we present an approach for dealing with our scheduling problem under uncertain numerical data based on a stability analysis of an optimal makespan. In particular, we investigate the candidate set of the critical paths in a circuit-free digraph, characterize a minimal set of the optimal schedules, and develop an optimal and a heuristic algorithm. We also report computational results for randomly generated as well as well-known test problems. 


Langowitz TA2.4 The Challenges of Product and Process Innovation in Higher Education, Nan Langowitz, Babson College, Babson Park, MA, 2157, Langowitz@babson.edu 

The higher education industry is a mature industry operating with a well-established dominant design. As with other mature industries, radical product innovation therefore runs the risk of upsetting the existing process resources and infrastructure in which institutions have placed great investment and effort. The professional service setting of educational institutions adds complexity to the product innovation dilemma. Radical product innovation, in the form of wholesale curriculum change, requires simultaneous product and process innovation and is therefore inherently disruptive. The nature of this disruption extends to student, faculty and administrative paradigms, challenging existing skill sets, organizational mechanisms, and operational procedures. The practice of core curriculum change at Babson College will serve as an illustrative case of the challenges of product and process innovation in higher education. 


Lapoint SB3.1 The Relationship of Technology in the Production/Operations Management Course to Student Learning Outcomes, Patricia Lapoint, Box 398, McMurry Station, McMurry University, Abilene, TX, 79697, plapoint@mcm.edu 

A debate in higher education centers on the relevancy of the academic curriculum and the teaching and learning process. In response, many institutions of higher education in the United States have introduced innovative methods in the classroom through the use of technological resources as one means of pedagogical improvement. With the advent of the Internet, multimedia interactive instruction and decision support software applications, pedagogical content and style for teaching the production/operations management course are altered. As a result, there is a question as to whether or not technological innovation improves the learning outcomes of students in the POM course. 


Lara SA9.4 Constraints in the Use of Technical Resources of Hospital Equipment: a study in Brazil, Josi Edson Lara, R. Curitiba 832-Sala 1010, Centro 30170-120-Belo Horizonte-MG Brasil, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, 30170-120, jedson@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br, Richardo Teixeira Veiga, R. Santissima Trindade 226A-Sagrada Familia-31030-250-Belo Horizonte, MG BRASIL, rveiga@lcc.ufmg.br 

The quality, applicability and results of technological innovation in the medical field have been examined by the government, equipment manufacturers, hospitals, health professionals, insurance companies as well as by customers and organizations concerning the protection of customer rights. Under this perspective it has been investigated in 10 hospitals in the Brazilian city of Belo Horizonte how intensive the use of technical resources of high technology medical equipment is. The main conclusions suggest that the machines are not being exploited in their full potential because of insufficient training of equipment operators and lack of capacity to interpret the machines output. 


Lawerence TB9.3 A Methodology for Technology Acquisition and Process Selection (TAPS), Stephen Lawerence, Campus Box 419, College of Business, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80303, stephen.lawrence@colorado.edu, George Monahan, Dept. of Business Administration, University of Illinois, 350 Commerce Building West, 1206 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, gmonahan@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu, Timothy Smunt, Babcock Graduate School of Management, Wake Forest University, PO BOX 7659, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, tim_smunt@mail.mba.wfu.edu 

In this paper we investigate the acquisition of technology and the selection of production processes in a planning environment where market evolution and technological development are stochastic. We develop a Markov decision model that provides an optimal process for selecting technologies through time as markets evolve and new process technologies become available. 


Le Blanc SD3.2 Exercises for Effective OM Teaching, Louis A. Le Blanc, 13814 Edgemond Dr., Little Rock, AR, 72212, laleblanc@ualr.edu, F. Robert Jacobs, Jr, Indiana University - Bloomington, jacobs@indiana.edu, James Patterson, Indiana University B Bloomington.  

As teachers of operations management, we have all seen examples in which interactive exercises enliven traditional methods of delivery. After a short lecture on a topic, a brief numerical exercise engages students to actively learn a concept. This presentation will provide several examples and strategies for using active learning exercises in OM courses, both undergraduate and graduate. A mix of manual, computer assisted, and Internet exercises are discussed in the session. Sources and exercise materials will be distributed to attendees. 


Lefebvre SC1.2 Determinants of Export Performance in SMEs, Louis-Andre Lefebvre, CIRANO & Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2020 University St., 25th Floor, Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2A5, lefebvrl@cirano.umontreal.ca, Elisabeth Lefebvre, CIRANO & Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2020 University St., 25th Floor, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Lise Prefontaine, CIRANO & Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2020 University St., 25th Floor, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 

Results of a longitudinal study of 3200 SMEs are presented. The main objective of the study is to identify and analyze the organizational, operational and technological determinants of export performance in SMEs. The relative importance of these determinants across industrial sectors is also investigated. 


Lemos TB2.3 Technological Forecasting Techniques and Competitive Intelligence: Tools for Improving the Innovation Process, Angela Denise de Cunha Lemos, Specialist in Bus. Admin., Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Administracao-UFRGS/PPGA/NITEC, Rua Dona Amelia, 163 Ap. 204, Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, 90810-190, knipper@nutecnet.com.br, Eng. Antonio Carlos T. Porto, acarlos@digitel.com.br.

This paper discusses some concepts regarding to what are the Technological Forecasting Techniques (TFTs) and Competitive Intelligence (CI) and presents some links between them in a strategic approach. These techniques are considered as tools for improving the innovation process inside firms. It analyzes, by a business case, how Brazilian electronic company Digital S.A., which produces modems and multiplexers for internal and global markets, deals with these techniques in a way of improving its process of innovation to get competitive advantage.

Leripio TB4.1 Water Supply System Based on ZERO Emissions, Alexandre Leripio, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - Campus, Universitario/Trindade/Florianopolis/SC/Brazil, Cx Postal 5111, CEP 88040 - 970, aleripio@eqs.ufsc.br, Nazareno Sabino, Paulo Selig. 

The fresh water availability has reduced around the world because the environmental impacts. The water support system has showed many problems, but it can view how improvement opportunity. The aim of this article is to present a view of the treatment, distribution, use and final destination of sewage sludge, searching for weak points of that system, and propose a new methodology of the treatment based on ZERO emissions. This methodology search for added value to wastes and residual water. 


Li TB3.3 Impact of Alternative Information Flow Schemes in JIT Systems, Hongwei Li, ISOM Department The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606, Mesbah Ahmed, ISOM Department The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, mahmed@uoft02.edu, Udayan Nandkeolyar, ISOM Department The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, unandke@uoft02.utoledo.edu 

This study focuses on the impact of three schemes of backward information flow in a JIT environment. The schemes are: 1. Finished good withdrawal information to the immediately preceding work center, 2. to the preceding two work centers, and 3. to the preceding two work centers with a delay for the further up-stream station. A simulation model is applied to investigate the impact of these schemes in a hypothetical two-work center JIT shop with varying traffic intensity, set-up time, rejection rate, and number of Kanbans. 


Lin TA5.3 Strategic Alliances in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Contingency Perspective, Binshan Lin, Dept of Management and Marketing, College of Business Administration, Louisiana State University - Shreveport, One University Place, Shreveport, LA, 71115, blin@pilot.Lsus.edu 

This paper proposes a framework of globalization strategy that shows the links between strategic alliances and factors in the market and non-market aspects of its operations. A contingency approach is employed to analyze the formation of strategic alliances in the pharmaceutical industry. 


Lingara SB5.4 Hazardous Waste Disposal in Developing Countries: Short Term and Long Term Strategies, Bangalore Lingara, Dept. of Mgt. & Mkt., Indiana University, Fort Wayne, IN, 46835, lingaraj@ipfw.indiana.edu, Russell Karnap, Dept. of Management Studies, Salem-Teikyo University, Salem, WV 26426, karnap@salam.wvnet.edu 

The disposal of toxic wastes in developing countries has become a global problem. This paper presents economic and ethical issues surrounding hazardous wasted disposal within a larger framework of global sustainability, and then examines the gap between short term and long term strategies for industrial firms. 


Lisboa SC3.2 An integrated simulation model to be used in management teaching, Joao Lisboa, Feuc-Av. Dias Da Silva 165-3000 Colmbra, Portugal, lisboa@gemini.ci.uc.pt, Carlos Gomes, Feuc-Av. Dias Da Silva 165-3000 Colmbra, Portugal, cfgomes@sonata.fe.uc.pt 

The teaching approach to management in general does not take in consideration the interaction between the different subject areas due to the organizational structure of the academic programs. In real life situations however, problems solution required most of the times the understanding of the multiple subject interactions within the organization. For instances decisions that directly affect the production process are taken many times without knowing its implication in the financial sector. This lack of interaction might cause waste of resources that could be saved and used in a better way. Using data of a ceramic company we are developing an integrated simulation model to allow the student to become aware of the complexity of the process decision. Functional areas of sales forecasting, production and finance are integrated such that the effect of any decision taken in one of these areas can be evaluated in the others. This model can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom. 


Lisboa TB8.3 The linear decision rule with constant work force size, Joao Lisboa, Feuc-Av. Dias Da Silva 165-3000 Colmbra, , Portugal, , lisboa@gemini.ci.uc.pt, Joao Paulo Silva, Feuc-Av. Dias Da Silva 165-3000 Colmbra, Portugal 

A considerable number of models have been developed by many authors to deal with the aggregate production planning problem. In general the techniques presented in the literature make use of a mix strategy for the solution of the problem which consists in adjusting periodically the size of work force, volume of production and level of inventor that minimize the production costs over a specific planning period. In real life situations there is some reluctance by managers to change frequently the size of work force, both due to the difficult in recruiting qualified personnel and the instability that this policy creates among the workers, causing many times a lost of productivity. The purpose of this study is to drive a linear decision rule using the methodology proposed by Holt, Modigliani and Muth that keeps constant the size of work force during the planning period for a mining company located in Portugal. 

Liu TB1.3 Strategic quality diffusion in concurrent development of manufacturing technology, John Liu, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, School of Business, Milwaukee, WI 53201, jl@se.cuhk.edu.hk

I report quality diffusion in concurrent development of a rapid prototyping technology in a manufacturing firm, using realistic data from Johnson Controls, Inc.  Under a leader-follower stochastic game framework with product design team as a leader and process engineering team as a follower, the law of diminishing return on product design is obtained, and therewith the optimality of a Surge-Discharge strategy is obtained. Another notable contribution is that learning effects (e.g., absorption capacity) are incorporated into the development process.


Loomba TB4.2 An Empirical Evaluation of TQM and PP&C Linkages, Arvinder P. S. Loomba, University of Northern Iowa Department of Management, College of Business Administration, Cedar Falls, IA, 50614-0125, arvinder.loomba@uni.edu, Michael S. Spencer, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Management, College of Business Administration, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, michael.spencer@uni.edu 

In today's industrial environment, many firms encounter problems while implementing TQM in production environment. This flawed implementation of TQM is mainly due to the failure to link it to production planning and control functions (Garvin 1987). Determining the extent and scope of TQM's impact on these production planning and control functions is crucial in developing short and long-term productions policies. In this paper, we explore linkages between these functions using empirical data from a large sample of managers in US multinational firms. The result of the study should interest managers and policy-makers in all manufacturing firms trying to implement TQM. 


Luchi TA6.1 How to Achieve the Frontline in Service Management: Results from a Benchmarking Study between USA, UK and Argentina, Roberto Luchi, Aguero 2373-(1425), Buenos Aries - Argentina, rluchi@lae.edu.ar, Marcelo Paladino, Aguero 2373-(1425), Buenos Aries - Argentina, mpaladino@lae.edu.ar, Marcelo Pancotto, IDEM, mpancotto@iae.edu.ar 

The opening of Argentine economy, which started in 1991, drove many changes in the industrial sector and relatively few in the service sector. Some of the objectives of this work are to diagnose the state of the Argentine service company management, to compare it with UK and USA, and to correlate management practice with company performance. We found a positive correlation between practice and performance. In spite of this, the study shows that many company current good results are not due to a good management practice but due to a poor competitiveness of the service sector. The work analyzes which management practices have to be improved by Argentine companies to succeed int he rising highly competitive scenario of Mercosur. 


Luebbe TA7.2 Team Decisions: When the Decision Really Counts, Richard Luebbe, 313 D Laws Hall, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH, 45056, Luebberl@muohio.edu 

This paper discusses team decision-making processes and provides a general framework for team decision making. Factors that can affect the outcome of a team decision are discussed. Two different decision making models are presented that help teams structure the decision making process. The models presented are the decision matrix, which is similar to the factor rating method, and the prioritization matrix. The models begin with a goal, establish and weigh criteria, and then compare options in a head-to-head process. These models can help minimize individual bias and help the team gain consensus and support, which are essential in the implementation process. 



Maanavi SD7.4 Automation & Productivity Growth have Muted Inflation, But Continuous Economic and Productivity Growth Require a New Management Responsibility and Reward System, Noureddin Maanavi, Norfolk State University, School of Business & Entrepreneurship, 1652 Lake Christopher Drive, Virginia Beach, VA, 23464. 

In the past two decades, the mission of most corporations has been to produce high quality products, satisfy customers, improve productivity and maximize profit. Based on this mission, corporate managers, the most powerful people in our society, have created an unprecedented production capacity of high-quality goods and services, with a productivity growth rate that has effectively muted inflation. This, in turn, has created an enormous amount of wealth and economic growth. Unfortunately, this wealth has not been fairly distributed among all stakeholders of the industrial organizations. Investors and top-level managers have been the main beneficiaries of this wealth. Non-manager employees have been deprived of their fair shares. The successful GM and UPS strike support this assertion. The main objective of this paper is to show that if managers are also charged with the fair distribution of wealth and their performance is measure and rewarded accordingly, there will be greater productivity and economic growth which results in a win-win situation for all stakeholders (customers, investors, managers, employees, unions, suppliers, creditors, governments, competitors and the general public). 


Maddux SD4.4 Effects of Forecasting Error on LP Aggregate Planning Models, Henry Maddux, Samford University School of Business, Birmingham, AL, 35229, hsmaddux@Samford.edu 

The sensitivity of linear programming models of the aggregate planning problem to forecast errors is evaluated under varying cost coefficient relationships. The planning problem is one characteristic of many production environments in which there is limited capacity to hold inventory, highly seasonal demand, and significant productivity effects created by employee turnover. A methodology for evaluation of the cost performance of rolling horizon production plans under demand uncertainty is presented. 

Mapes TA7.3. The Effect of Process Reliability and Consistency on Manufacturing Performance, John Mapes, Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Beds MK43 OAL, UK. Marek Szwejczewski, Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Beds MK43 OAL, UK, Colin New, Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Beds MK43 OAL, UK.

The purpose of this investigation was to identify the drivers which enable world class manufacturing plants to out perform those plants with lower levels of performance. 953 fourteen page questionnaires completed during the period 1993-96 by plants participating in the UK Best Factories Award competition were analysed using multiple regression analysis. The most important drivers enabling world class performance were all found to be different aspects of process consistency and reliability. They included adherence to schedule, supplier reliability, low processing time variability and first time pass rate.


Martens SB2.3 Constrained optimization of newspaper subscription sales, Hans Martens, Perscominatie BV, , The Netherlands, hans.martens@perscom.nl, Willem Selen, Vesalius College-Free University Brussels, Belgium, wjselen@vub.ac.be 

A mixed-integer programming model was developed as a tool for optimizing the marketing instrument-mix with respect to newspaper subscription sales at Perscombinatie BV, the largest newspaper producer and distributor in the Netherlands. Results show a potential improvement of 14% in new subscriptions, while saving 10% on the budget. In addition, the model helps direct marketeers to structure and define rules that govern the mix of marketing instruments used for pursuing a particular marketing/operations strategy. Furthermore, it allows for a sensitivity analysis in examining and evaluating the consequences of "what-if"-scenarios in the marketing instrument-mix. 


McCracken SB3.2 Production Operations Management and Web Technology: A Pedagogical Methodology, Melody J. McCracken, ITOM Department, Appalachian State University, NC, mccrackenmj@appstate.edu, Dawn Medlin, ITOM Department, Appalachian State University, medlinbd@appstate.edu 

Because information technology is changing so rapidly, new information technology must be integrated into business curriculums to maintain student marketability. This research evaluates the level of technology transfer accomplished by using the Web as a pedagogical methodology in the required core Production Operations Management course in a College of Business. The research analyzes factor that effect the transfer of technology as measure by both the current level and future anticipated usage of Web technology for business students experiencing two different pedagogical methodologies for teaching Production Operations Management. Finally, the paper identifies the benefits for both students and faculty of using Web technology to teach the Production Operations Management course.


McDermott SA2.2 Radical product development and the integrated team approach, Chris McDermott, The Lally School of Mgt. And Tech., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180, Mcderc@rpi.edu

This paper presents findings from a three-year study on the management of radical innovation. Working with product development teams at such firms as IBM, GM, and DuPont, the now popular integrated approach to NPD is explored to see its strengths, and weakneses in this environment. Results indicate that some benefits of this approach fall away as risk and uncertainty increase.


McLachlin SB6.4 Engagement Success in Operations Management Consulting, Ron D. McLachlin, Faculty of Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T5V4, mclachl@cc.umanitoba.ca 

Operations managers often engage consultants, not always successfully, for many reasons. This paper focuses on three questions. First, what is "engagement success" in operations in operations management consulting? Second, what factors appear to explain engagement success? And third, what may be learned from other disciplines, such as organizational development consulting, and what is unique to consulting in operations management? The paper is based on a literature review, mostly from other disciplines, as well as interviews with both clients and consultants who are active in operations management areas.The paper concludes with a framework, testable propositions, and suggestions for future research. 


McTavish TA5.4 Diagnosing Strategic Manufacturing/Marketing Relations Through Linear Responsibility Charting, Ronald McTavish, Brock University, St. Catherine, Ontario, L25SH, Edward Grigg, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G1M8. 

The task of integrating marketing and manufacturing functions is universally accepted as of great importance for the firm's strategic success. Manufacturing strategies must align with marketing strategies, and the capabilities of manufacturing need to be recognized in marketing strategy. Yet this alignment is difficult to achieve in practice. Among the obstacles to effective collaboration is role ambiguity: there may be substantial disagreement in the management team about who plays what role in key decisions. Differing viewpoints in marketing and manufacturing contribute to conflict and undermine integration endeavours. The purpose of responsibility charting is to provide a means of identifying such ambiguities as a basis for appropriate corrective action by management. The paper describes the use of responsibility charting in a chemical company. The technique is shown to assist in identifying a number of role ambiguities in the marketing and manufacturing areas. These are enumerated and discussed and key implications for management are drawn. 


Mehring SB6.1 Processing Documents with Time Constraints: The role of dynamic task assignments, Joyce S. Mehring, University of Massachusetts - Lowell, Lowell, MA, 1854, joyce_mehring@uml.edu, Michael J. Maggard, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, mmaggard@cba.neu.edu 

This paper examines rules for dynamically assigning tasks when workers process documents with multiple timeliness constraints. Several high priorities tasks for each document must be completed within a few hours of arrival, while the remaining tasks must be completed within several days. To minimize resources and meet timeliness constraints when demand varies, one strategy is to vary the number of workers assigned to high and low priority tasks. We use simulation (ARENA) to examine the effectiveness of alternative task assignment rules at different levels of demand variability. The rules we consider use information about the state of the system.


Melcher SA4.1 Managing the Interorganizational Set to Achieve Continuous Improvement, Arlyn J. Melcher, College of Business & Administration, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, arlyn@siu.edu

 The potential effectiveness of production programs such as contracting out, TQM, JIT, joint problem solving, and continuous improvement depend on managing the firms in the value chain as an interorganizational set. The shift is from market to management (agency) arrangements, from distributive to integrative bargaining, and from competing as an individual firm to competing as an integrated set of firms in the chain. This change requires a shift in fundamental assumptions, management approaches, and practices. It is useful to clarify the radical shift in the management paradigm that is required in realize the potential of these programs and explain why few firms have been able to make the shift.


Meredith SB1.3 Methodological Rigor in Case/Field Research, Jack R. Meredith, Babcock Graduate School of Management, Wake Forest University, PO Box 7659, Winston-Salem, NC, 27109, jom@mail.mba.wfu.edu 

Papers reporting significant research based on empirical case and field studies are still rare. This talk will discuss how to achieve rigor in such research undertakings and how to publish the results. 


Merlano SD4.1 Mixed Model Assembly Line Balancing Ranking Tasks by Number of Product that Share Each One, Delfina Merlano, Universidade de Navarra, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Paseo Manuel Lardizabal, 13, 20009 San Sebastian, Spain, dmerlano@ceit.es, Alejandro Garcia del Valle, Universidade de La Coruna, Escuela Politecnica Superior, C/ Mendizaban s/n- Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Spain, agvalle@udc.es 

This paper presents a method for solving the Mixed Model Assembly Line Balancing Problem. The proposed method obtains a good distribution of tasks to stations, avoiding duplicated tasks. The method takes into account that the balancing of stations has to be done only when a modification is made in the design of the product, a new product is introduced or a product is discontinued. Results with this method are presented for different combinations of products and a comparative analysis with other methods is made. 

Metters SD6.3 Centralization of Back-Office Services, Richard Metters, OGSM, Vanderbilt University, 401 21st Avenue S., Nashville, TN 37203, Rich.Metters@Owen.vanderbilt.edu, Vincente Vargas, Emory University 

The benefits and limits of service centralization are explored and a prescriptive model identifying four specific centralization strategies is proposed. The strategies are illustrated with an empirical study of retail bank lending practices.


Meyer SB3.3 POOL - An Interactive Web Site for Operations Management Instruction, Brad Meyer, CBPA, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, 50311, bradley.meyer@drake.edu 

The author discusses the design and implementation of the Principles of Operations On-line Laboratory (POOL). This website contains active-learning exercises designed to demonstrate and elucidate the major principles and techniques covered in the Operations Management introductory course. Video-clips, Java applets, and spreadsheet templates are available on this website. The author will also discuss his experience in using these software tools in his classes. 


Mills SB1.4 Methods of Strategic Resource and Competence Identification, John F. Mills, Manufacturing and Management Division, Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX, UK, , jfm@eng.cam.ac.uk, Mike Bourne, Manufacturing and Management Division, Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX, UK 

This paper focuses on the analysis of resources and competencies in manufacturing companies. Definitions are taken from economics and business strategy theory and contrasted with alternative views from the operations management field. An approach is then described which helps to identify four categories of strategic competence. 


Monroe SC3.1 A Simulation Game for Teaching Demand Uncertainty, Capacity Planning, Scheduling and Workforce Concepts, Richard Monroe, Management Department, University of Hartford, Barney School of Business, 200 Bloomfield Ave, W. Hartford, CT, 6117-1599, rmonroe@uhavax.hartford.edu 

A simulation game is developed for use in a POM class. The game requires teams of students to make operating decisions regarding scheduling, safety stocks of inventory, and workforce assignments. Primarily operating parameters - demand and production performance - are specified as probability distributions and each simulation determines the exact level of those parameters. Feedback is given to the students to use for their next set of decisions. The simulation is conducted using a simulation add-in software (@Risk) that operates within a spreadsheet program (Excel). Example results are presented. 


Morgan SB6.3 Lifetime profit implications of manufacturing decisions that dictate after-sale service levels, Leslie Olin Morgan, Department of Management David Eccles School of Business, 1645 E. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9304, mgtlm@business.utah.edu, Alysse Rosewater, Department of Management David Eccles School of Business, 1645 E. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9304, mgtar@business.utah.edu

Consider a firm that offers a portfolio of semi-durable products requiring parts and service over their useful lives. The firm's decisions regarding the design, pricing, and availability of parts and maintenance dictate the level of after-sale service received by the customer thereby influencing the customer's future purchase behavior. We integrate design and manufacturing decisions (e.g., investments in commonality across parts and inventory levels maintained for parts over time) with pricing decisions for after-sale service elements in a model that maximizes firm profits from the stream of goods purchased over the life of the consumer.



Nakhai SA8.4 The State of Baldrige-Like State Quality Awards: The Case of Pennsylvania Revisited, Behnam Nakhai, Dept. of Bus. Admin., Millersville Univ. of Pennsylvania, P.O.Box 1002, Millersville, PA, 17551-0302, Bnakhai@marauder.millersv.edu 

Many of the "Baldrige-like" state quality award programs, introduced by most states since 1991 as part of their own statewide TQM initiatives, are experiencing major implementation difficulties. The problem being faced by many states seems to be more of a norm and Pennsylvania's program is no exception. After only four years since its inception through legislation (ACT 1992-111), and only after two cycles of awards given in 1994 and 1995, the Pennsylvania Quality Leadership Award program was indefinitely shutdown effective with the 1996 award year. This paper assesses Pennsylvania's program through a survey and attempts to identify the causes for its failure. The key implications of the findings are outlined and several recommendations for revitalizing the troubled state quality award programs are presented. 


Nandurkar SC8.2 Some Algorithms for Forming Cells for GT Based Manufacturing Systems, Keshav Nandurkar, Research Scholar, Dept. of Mech. Engg. I.I.T Powai Mumbai-400076 INDIA, Keshaz@me.iitb.ernet.in, Arjunan Subash Babu, Dept. of Mech. Eng. IIT Powai Mumbai-400076 INDIA, subash@me.iitb.ernet.in, Austin Thomas, Srinivas Rajagopal 

This paper pertains to two algorithms developed for forming cells using job-machine incidence matrix. These two algorithms are styled as ALTROC (alternative to ROC) and BIALCA (Bi-pronged approach to cell formation). ALTROC is an improvement over Rank Order Clustering (ROC) algorithm of King whereas, BIALCA uses the concept of Average Linkage Clustering algorithms (ALCA) advocated by Seiffodini. The details of these two clearly demonstrate their superiority in terms of their ability to form block diagonal matrix and minimise number of exceptional elements and duplicate machines 


Napoleon SA6.1 IT-Worker Systems in Structured and Unstructured Decision Making Environments, Karen J. Napoleon, Terry College of Business, Dept. of Management, 419 Brooks Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, knapoleon@blaze.cba.uga.edu, Cheryl Gaimon, DePree School of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, cheryl.gaimon@mgt.gatech.edu 

The availability of information technology (IT) has dramatically impacted the creation of output an quality for firms in the service sector and for support environments of manufacturers. Two formal models are introduced characterizing the contributions of IT and work force to output and quality in services. In Model 1, the performance benefits derived from IT are driven by IT features as opposed to worker skill. Retail industry check-out counters fit this model of structured decision making. In Model 2, the benefits derived from investment in IT depend on worker skill. A computer aided design (CAD) system used by an engineering specialist is an example of the unstructured decision making analyzed in Model 2. We explore a firm's ability to generate revenue through increased output an quality in the context of IT-worker systems embedded in structured versus unstructured decision making service environments. 


Neely SB7.4 What is the Role of Business Performance Measurement: Command and Control, Assessing Health or Strategic Learning?, Andy Neely, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, adn@eng.cam.ac.uk

Business performance measurement is on the management agenda, but why? It has long been recognized that performance measures are an integral part of the planning and control cycle. And managers must have had to plan and control the deployment of resources since the first organizations was established. So why has business performance measurement become so topical, so recently? 


Neto SC5.1 Structural Decisions in the Construction Industry From an Operation Strategy Perspective, Jose de Paula Barros Neto, R. Anita Garibaldi, 56/305, Porto Alegre, RS Brazil, CEP: 90.450-000, Barros@vortex.ufgrs.br, Jaime Fensterseifer, R. Anita Garibaldi, 56/305, Joao Osvaldo Aranha, Oliveira, R. Anita Garibaldi, 56/305 

Very little work has been done on production and operation management in the construction industry, particularly from a strategic perspective. This paper analyzes the structural decisions categories of the widely accepted manufacturing strategy framework in order to develop a similar set of decisions categories for the construction industry. This is done through interviews with a panel of experts from the sector. The impact of the decision categories on the competitive dimensions of cost, quality, flexibility and dependability is also discussed. 


Neto SC5.2 Formulation of Production Strategy and the Building Industry, Jose de Paula Barros Neto, R. Anita Garibaldi, 56/305, Porto Alegre/RS Brazil, CEP: 90.450-000, barros@vortex.ufrgs.br, Carlos Torres Formoso, Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99 (30 andar), Porto Alegre/RS Brazil, CEP: 90.035-190, formoso@vortex.ufrgs.br 

This article makes a critical analysis of the various formulation models of production strategy already published. It is based on the peculiarities of the production function in the building industry and on the changes that have occurred in the process of strategic planning in order to develop a specific formulation model of production strategies to the building industry. Furthermore, there will be an application of this model in a building company in Porto Alegre, Brazil as well as a qualitative analysis of this application. 


Neureuther SA7.3 The Effect of Measurement Increment on Estimating Internal Loss, Brian Neureuther, Texas Tech University, Information Systems and Quantitative Sciences, College of Business Administration, Box 42101, Lubbock, TX, 79409-2101, otbri@coba2.ttu.edu, George Kenyon, Chesapeake Decision Sciences Institute, 10575 Katy Freeway, Suite 350, Houston, TX 77024, gnk@cdstx.com 

The Taguchi Loss Function is a method by which firms gauge the amount of internal losses they incur due to poor quality products. This loss can also be represented and measured in terms of the process capability index Cp. The Taguchi Loss Function assumes that these losses follow a continuous distribution, however, measurement units used by industry inherently follow a discrete distribution. This paper will analyze the effect of measurement unit size on the accuracy of the determination of an internal loss. A simulation is developed and statistical analysis is performed on the results to determine the effect of the choice of measurement increment on the accuracy of loss determination. 


Nicholson SA5.4 Competing from the Inside: the Fundamental Role of Operations Management in Business Strategy, Alastair Nicholson, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, anicholson@lbs.ac.uk

The study of operations management has moved from its traditional area of providing technical solutions to specific internal problems to the more wide ranging brief of strategic evaluation. But operations management should retain its prime focus as the creation of value from the current assets, with the current experience and capabilities. Operations management should provide the counter arguments to the classic strategic pressures from finance, marketing, and technology, otherwise the value of the current assets and capabilities will be lost. It is the open debate between the operational perspectives and the business perspectives and the business perspectives which will create the imaginative capabilities of future operational systems.


Nicholson SD2.3 Resolving the Systems Paradox: IT Offerings vs. Operations Management Needs, Alastair Nicholson, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, anicholson@lbs.ac.uk 

IT and systems offer companies a means of controlling and handling the complexity of their operations. Most of the IT systems end up as the automation of paper work with little contribution to the management of the operation. To apply IT systems to the operational management context, IT must be seen as instrumenting the situation in simple enough ways so that the managers see priorities and policies more broadly than would otherwise be possible. Also the implementation must be based on incredibly simple access to the inputs and outputs of the operational practices. this paper will report on three systems which were developed to fulfil this philosophy.


Noonan SA7.2 A Risk Analysis Model for Inspection Decisions on Incoming Material in Manufacturing Operations, Frank Noonan, Department of Management, W.P.I., 100 Inst. Rd, Worcester, MA, 1609, fnoonan@wpi.edu, Hanry Kumala, Department of Management W.P.I, hanry@wpi.edu

Increased emphasis on lean manufacturing can leave quality assurance managers having to justify the level of expenditure on the inspection of incoming materials. Decisions on whether a shipment of incoming materials may bypass acceptance-sampling inspection are usually based on heuristic judgement. This paper examines the decision process based on a formal risk analysis model as the basis for improving the utilization of limited inspection capacity resources. The model depends on encoding expert judgement to characterize risk and it utilizes sensitivity analysis for identifying appropriate inspection protocols. Model implementation is illustrated through an application at a manufacturing facility of Bose Corp. 


Noonan TB5.3 A DSS Design for Translating Corporate Environmental Policy into POM Strategies, Frank Noonan, Department of Management, W.P.I., 100 Institute Rd., Worcester, MA, 1609, fnoonan@wpi.edu, Jorge Duque, ESPOL Guayaquil, Ecuador, jduque@goliat.espol.edu.ec 

Key to a successful environmental management system is the ability to translate environmental policy into effective POM strategic plans. However, companies have been found to be weak in setting environmental performance targets. One main cause seems to be the absence of suitable decision support tools. This paper presents a generic design of a DSS to facilitate the translation process. The tool incorporates the use of scenario planning, a multiattribute framework to support stakeholders concerns and the use of the extended Porter's value chain. The paper shares survey results of a critical design review by a group of EHS directors. 

noonan.doc          noonan.zip


van Oorschot TA2.2 Dynamic resource allocation for concurrently executed product development projects, Kim van Oorschot, Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Technology Management (Pav.F11), Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. tel. +31 40 247 38 28 /22 30. fax. +31 40 246 45 96. SMTP: K.E.v.Oorschot@tm.tue.nl 

We study the development projects which can be split up in concurrently executed work packages. We present a model which describes the process of dynamically reallocating work package resources so as to maximize the project result given the total amount of resources available within a given time. 

Osyk TA6.4 Continuous Improvement in Service Organizations - Potential and Pitfalls, Barbara Osyk, Department of Management, University of Akron, Akron, OH, 44325, bosyk@uakron.edu, Moutaz Khouja, IOM Department, Belk College of Business Administration, Charlotte, NC 28223, mjkhouja@unccvm.uncc.edu 

Many researchers have argued that the reduction of inventory exposes problems which, when solved, can lead to continuous improvement. However, service organizations typically lack physical WIP inventory. How can service organizations compensate for th absence of inventory as a tool for systematically stressing the system? We discuss the potential alternatives that can be used to expose problems in the system and examine the potential benefits and pitfalls that can occur when inducing stress in a service organization. 


Ozkul SC4.1 Impact of Structural Factors on Supply Chain, Ahmet Ozkul, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson, SC, 29634, aozkul@clemson.edu, Mehmet Barut, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29364, mbarut@clemson.edu 

Extensive competition is forcing companies to look for ways to improve performance of supply chains. One class of factors affecting the performance can be identified as structural factors, including organization structure (line, star, circle, and matrix), degree of autonomy (centralization/decentralization), and vertical complexity (number of downstream and upstream firms in a chain). Different supply chains are formed for each factor combination, and simulated. Variance analysis is done to see the statistical significance of the structural factors. The results of the study should help practitioners to design effective supply chains by providing valuable insights. 



Padula TB5.2 In Search of Productivity: From the Mechanical Loom to the Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Antonio D. Padula, Au.Joao Pessoa, 52, 90040-900 Ponto Alegne - Brasil, adpadula@adm.ufrgs.br, Denis Borenstein, Au.Joao Pessoa, 52, 90040-900 Ponto Alegne - Brasil, denisb@adm.ufrgs.br 

One of the striking characteristics of the Industrial Revolution was the unprecedented improvement in productivity of the industrial process. The fundamental element for such evolution has been the incessant pursuit of replacement of the production factor "manpower" by the "capital" factor (machinery and equipment). In this paper the authors seek, through a historical perspective, to discuss the economic rationality which led to the great progress in the industrial productive basis (from the mechanical loom, the Ford assembly line, the computerized production, the system of productive cells, to the most recent flexible manufacturing systems). 


Paiva SC5.3 Organizational Knowledge and the Dynamic Process of Manufacturing Strategy Formulation, Ely Paiva, Kenan-Flagler Business School CB 3490, McColl Building, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, paivae@icarus.bschool.unc.edu, Aleda V. Roth, Kenan-Flagler Business School, CB 3490, McColl Building, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel HIll, NC 27599, rotha@icarus.bschool.unc.edu, Jaime E. Fensterseifer, PPGA/Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Av. Joao Pessoa, 52 Room 11 CEP90.040-000, Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, jfenster@adm.ufrgs.br 

The increasing dynamism in competitive environments is related to new information sources, new technologies in hardware and management, new competitors and shorter life cycles of products. This juncture has stressed the importance of organizational knowledge in manufacturing companies. We may consider organizational knowledge as know-what (where to find the needed information) and know-how (how to run operations smoothly). These are the core aspects in a dynamic process of manufacturing strategy formulation. Considering that faster knowledge accumulation may lead to a competitive advantage, we may speculate possible relations among the dynamic process of manufacturing strategy formulation, capabilities and performance. 


Paladino SC5.4 Evolution of the Manufacturing strategy in Argentine companies since the change of a Closed Economy for the Model of the most Developed Countries, Marcelo Paladino, Ayuero 2373-(1425), Buenos Aires-Argentina, mpaladino@iae.edu.ar, Roberto Luchi, IDEM, rluchi@iae.edu.ar, Marcelo Pancotto, IDEM, mpancotto@iae.edu.ar 

In Argentina, the stabilization an opening-up policies carried out since 1989 have produced strong changes in the manufacturing strategy of the companies. In this work it can be seen how those strategies change: competition not only through price and quality but also through service; supply chain management to raise competitiveness; difficulties in the alignment of the improvement and adjustment plans to the competitive challenge of the future. The study shows how Argentina is adopting the model for the most developed countries. However, having made the technology upgrade, it is necessary to support the investment in hard with an emphasis in the human resources and management development. 


Paladino TB4.3 SIDEBAR S.A.: A Quality Management Case, Marcelo Paladino, Aguero 2373-(1425), Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2373-(1425), mpaladino@iac.edu.ar, Jorge De Buono, Aguero 2373-(1425), Juan Roure 

The purpose of the case is to deepen the Quality Improvement process carried out by SIDEBAR - the largest steel mill in Argentina with more than $1 billion in sales and about 7,000 employees. SIDEBAR, a company of TECHINT Corporation, one of the major holdings in the country, resulted from the privatization of SOMISA, the state-owned iron and steel mill, in November 1992. This case studies the management from SOMISA takeover (1992) to July 1995, when the company was analyzing the way of continuing the improvement process. 


Patterson SC7.1 Assessing the Impact of Employee Education And Shop-Floor Intervention on Plant Performance, J. Wayne Patterson, 105 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, jwptt@clemson.edu, Loretta Cochran, 101 Sirrine Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29364, loretta@clemson.edu, Cheryl Patterson, Furman University, Greenville, SC 29613, cheryl.patterson@furman.edu 

This paper describes the development and implementation of a training program entitled Open Book Management in a manufacturing firm. We explore assessment of the resulting transfer of learning by measuring the impact in three areas: 1. Employee attitudes (measured by changes in commitment to the organization, perceived organizational support, trust in the organization's financial information, and levels or role ambiguity and conflict), 2. shop floor performance (measured by change in on-time delivery, waste of the bottleneck capacity, ratio of planned to actual average production, rework, product returns and number of customer complaints) and 3. financial performance (measured by percent change in value added). 


Pearson SC1.1 Service Priorities in Small USA and European Firms Engaged in International Logistics, John Pearson, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, john.pearson@asu.edu, Jake Semeijn, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands

This paper makes a comparison between the logistics service priorities of international shippers located in the US and those located in the European Union (EU). The paper compared the EU ratings to the US ratings, then compares different EU member countries, and US companies by region (North-East, Central, South, West). It is shown that EU importers and exporters essentially hold the same service priorities as their US counterparts. A few exceptions are noted. Differences appear among lower order priorities. 

pearson.doc          pearson.zip


Peschke TA3.3 Replenishment: A New Perspective on the EOQ Inventory Model, Richard Peschke, Department of Business Administration, Moorhead State University, Moorhead, MN, 56563, peschke@mhd1.moorhead.msus.edu 

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Model is a classic way of addressing inventory management. EOQ assumes minimizing two costs - carrying cost and ordering costs - yields an optimized minimum cost. In actuality these costs are not minimized. They are a compromise which achieves a minimum sum. Replenishment is a modification that, when made to the EOQ model, will yield a lower annual costs by reducing both inventory carrying costs and ordering costs. This paper summarizes the basic EOQ model, develops the logic needed to break one of the assumptions, and demonstrates how Replenishment reduces overall inventory costs. 


Peterson SB7.3 Reappraising Logistics Performance Measurement Within the Defense Logistics Agency: Evolving to Meet New Realities, David Peterson, HQ DLA/MMBB 8725 John J. Kingman Rd., Ft. Belvoir, VA, 22060-6621, dk_peterson@hq.dla.mil, Robert St. Thomas, HQ DLA/MMBB 8725 John J. Kingman Rd., robert_stthomas@hq.dla.mil 

The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is the Department of Defenses primary manager of consumable spare parts, managing 4.1 million SKUs representing $11.6 billion in annual sales. Historically, as DLA grew, its logistics performance measurement systems became a disparate assortment of individual metrics. (Caplice and Sheffi, 1995) This paper details DLA's efforts to build a logistics performance measurement system that satisfies the six criteria outlined by Caplice and Sheffi: comprehensiveness, casual orientation, vertical integration, horizontal integration, internal comparability and usefulness. A comparison of DLA's "before" and "after" logistics performance measurement systems is illustrated with actual logistics response time case studies.


Pittman SA1.2 Establishing a New Direction for the Planning and Control of Multi-Resource Constrained Single Project Environments: A Retrospective View, Paul Pittman, Indiana University Southeast, Division of Business & Economics, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN, 47150, ppittman@iusmail.ius.indiana.edu

The use and interest in project management has increased significantly over recent years with organization-wide implementations such as enterprise resource planning systems, TQM/continuous improvement projects, and new management information systems. These implementations have increased reliance on existing project management planning and control techniques to effectively manage large-scale projects. This paper organized and classifies the project management literature so that the historical research emphasis can be more clearly understood. In analyzing the literature, directions for future research to improve the techniques for the planning and control of projects are suggested. 

Price TB6.3 Performance in Warehousing Services: Technology vs. Humans, Willard Price, Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211

This paper presents a model to observe the performance of a warehouse system in an attempt to achieve quality service, including flexible, responsive, accurate delivery, with reduced cycle time, courteous shipment status information, all at low cost. The model is then applied to a large manufacturer of food products experimenting with a new warehouse strategy which de-emphasizes the use of technology. Their decision is examined to move from a highly automated warehouse to a new facility with an outsourced operation and greatly increased human participation.


Rackow SB8.1 Quality Management in Healthcare, Paul Rackow, 1623 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10128, rackow@mary.fordham.edu 

The Deming quality philosophy has made an important impact in the healthcare industry. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement was created to promote these ideas. Applications have occurred in both clinical and non-clinical areas at hospitals, healthcare organizations, and governmental institutions. The initial applications were mostly in the non-clinical areas but recently surgical clinical applications have drawn attention. Examples of control chart data in cardio-thoracic, bowel, and orthopedic surgery will be presented together with the effects of protocol changes. 


Ramirez SD9.2 Analysis comparative of flow shop scheduling algorithms and Shortest Processing Time Rule, Humberto Ramirez, Universidad de Navarra, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Paseo Manuel Lardizabal, 13, 20009 San Sebastian, Spain, hramirez@ceit.es, Alejandro Garcia del Valle, Escuela Politecnica Superior, c/ Mendizabal s/n- Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Spain, agvalle@udc.es 

We examine the problem associated with flow shop scheduling. This problem can be formulated generally by the sequencing of n jobs on m machines under the precedence condition. We consider process time, idle time, makespan, mean flow time, number of jobs in system, sequence problem and its influence in work in process (WIP). Five flow shop scheduling algorithms are tested: CDS, Palmer, Gupta and two heuristics. The mentioned heuristics are based on SPT rule which considers two different criteria. We describe their principal characteristics, evaluation's measures, an experimental design considering the objectives mentioned above. Computational results on small and large problems are discussed. Analysis of the result reveals that the heuristic solutions are not near optimal. Use of dispatching rule is find effective in the conclusions. 

ramirez.doc          ramirez.zip


Rana TB3.4 Update of Classification of JIT Production Systems Literature, Dharam Rana, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, 39217, Narendra Rustagi, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059 

During the last twenty years, changes in technology and, global trade have forced manufacturing firms in the industrialized countries to rethink their basic operations and reorganized their production processes. Japanese manufacturers began search for a production system that could reduce costs and increase productivity. As a result, a JIT production system was developed. This paper examines the literature of just-in-time productions systems and provides a comprehensive update of the categorized JIT literature. The paper presents an update of the JIT literature form 1990 to 1997. We surveyed more than eighty English journals and found in excess of two hundred JIT articles. The articles are classified in proposed categories. Trends in various categories of the JIT literature are discussed. 


Randolph SB3.4 Teaching POM by Internet: A Personal Experience, Paul Randolph, College of Business Administration, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409-2101, odphr@coba.ttu.edu 

The author has taught POM at Texas Tech University in Lubbuck, Texas via the Internet for over two years. About half the time be taught from his office at Texas Tech, and the other half from his other office, which is at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. We all meet together in a classroom cyber space. Most students log in from various locations in West Texas, although students also have logged in from Paris, Helsinki, and Mexico City. This paper describes the experiences of teaching via the Internet, plus student reactions. 


Reid  SB8.4 Multiple Iterations Through th Plan-Do Check-Act Improvement Cycle: A Case Study, Richard A. Reid, Anderson Schools of Management, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, reid@anderson.unm.edu, John (Bruce) Buell, Georgia-Pacific, PO Box 330, Quanah, TX, 79252

The last step in the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) quality improvement cycle requires the cycle to be repeated if the implemented change does not achieve the desired performance level. The total quality management literature suggests that most improvement teams reach their goals at the end of the first cycle. This manufacturing case study describes an industrial emissions problem that involved repeating the PDCA cycle three times. Although each cycle improved the situation, the complexity of the initial problem required a steadfast commitment to continuous improvement. Is this a common scenario or would better planning eliminate the need to iterate? 


Ribera SC6.2 Capacity Decisions in Service Design: The Perceived Quality Dimension, Jaume Ribera, IESE, Universidad de Navarra, Av Pearson 21, 08034 - Darcelona, Spain, ribera@iese.es, Ma. Julia Prats, IESE, Universidad de Navarra, Av Pearson 21, 08034 - Darcelona, Spain 

Capacity considerations are an important issue in the design of service operations. Traditional synthetic capacity calculations used in manufacturing settings are based on resource utilizations by unit of output. Direct translation of this approach to service operations face two important problems: (1) both the product definitions and the input required on the part of the server are somewhat fuzzy and subject to marginal adjustments without substantially altering the output, and (2) customer interpretations of capacity utilization can have an important effect on the perceived service quality. The presentation will review the procedures commonly used for capacity calculations in different service sectors and compare them with empirical results of customer satisfaction measurements under different saturation levels of the theoretical service capacity. 


Rosen SD6.2 Manufacturing's New Frontier: Service, L. Drew Rosen, Cameron School of Business, The University of North Carolina - Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, 28403, rosenl@uncwil.edu 

There is a revolution taking place in the US economy, a service revolution. Today over 70 percent of GNP and 75 percent of all jobs can be attributed to the service sector. This monumental change is not only affecting 'service' firms but manufactures as well. As manufacturing becomes more automated, streamlining operations, and outsourcing basic operation, the service component of a typical manufacturer is growing rapidly. This presentation will discuss this change going on in our economy and on our shop floors. If manufacturers are to prosper in the coming decade, they will need to embrace this change and formulate their operating strategies to put 'service' and service operations at the forefront of their strategic plans. 


Roth SC1.4 The Effectiveness of New Hypercase Technology in MBA Teaching: An Empirical Investigation, Aleda Roth, Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB # 3490, McColl Building, Chapel-Hill, NC, 27599, aleda_roth@unc.edu, Beatriz Munoz-Seca, ISSE, Carretera de castilla, KM.5, 81 Camino del Cerro del Aguila, 3 Madrid, Spain, aleda_roth@iese.es, Josep Riverola, ISSE, Carretera de castilla, KM.5, 81 Camino del Cerro del Aguila, 3 Madrid, Spain, riverola@iese.es, Elena Revilla, Avd.Valle Esgueva, 6 47011, Valladolid, Spain, revilla@wamba. cpd.uva.es 

Information intensive technologies are being proposed as relevant new tools for teaching Operations Management. This research investigates the effectiveness of hypercase technology. Hypercases are presented in CD-ROM format with hyperlinks to the world-wide-web, multimedia, interactive simulations, and other information-based features designed to enhance learning. Hypercase technology enables students to customize their learning experiences and to broaden the scope of their knowledge acquisition and critical thinking. Yet how best to deploy hypercase technology and its impact on student satisfaction and learning is not well-understood. A cross-cultural experiment was undertaken with matched control and experimental MBA classes in the US and Spain to assess the impact of the hypercase technology for OM MBA teaching. Our results indicate how hypercases can be best used. 

Ruiz-Torres SD9.3 Scheduling in Cellular Manufacturing Systems with Sequence Dependent Set-Ups, Alex J., Ruiz-Torres, FGCU-College of Business, 19501 Treeline Avenue South, Fort Myers, FL, 33965, aruiztor@fgcu.edu, Jatinder N. D. Gupta, Department of Management, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47302, jgupta@gw.bsu.edu, J. Rene Villalobols, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968-0521, renev@blobos.me.utep.edu 

The implementation of cellular manufacturing systems involves the processing of part families on dedicated machine clusters (cells). This leads to reduced total set-up times, work-in-progress, inventory, and lead times. However, the clustering of machines to serve a specific product family reduces the flexibility of the shop, especially during demand variations. In face of demand variations, parallel cells could be used to reduce the time required to process each job. This paper investigates four heuristics on an environment with equal parallel cells under a variety of set-up and demand conditions with the objective of minimizing the average flow-time. 

Russomano SC1.3 Landis & Gyr / INEPAR, An Example, Victor Henrique Russomano (russomano@trip.com.br)

Landis & Gyr / INEPAR, a Brazilian ./ Swiss company, producing electrical energy meters in two models (maximum capacity of 104,000 per month with 420 employees) is applying successfully the following adapted, modern or revived production management procedures: family partners, outsourcing, manufacturing cells, mini-plants, multifunctional teams, process and/or product-oriented organization structure, ISO 9002, technological partners, and the Toyota system (kanban / just-in-time). The application of these methodologies comes mainly from the implementation and maintenance of a truly two-way, amicable management/labor relationship - a challenge philosophy for global excellence - that impregnates the whole company and its partners.



Sabino SB8.2 Applying Quality Benchmark Deployment (QBD) in a Language School, Nazareno Batista Sabino, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)/Departamento de Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas/ Grupo de Engenharia e Analise do Valor (GAV), Rua Souza Dutra 1058, Florianopolis/SC/Brazil, CEP 88070-600, sabino@eps.ufsc.br. Paulo Mauricio Selig, Ivan Vieira de Melo, Osmar Possamai, Gregorio Varvakis Rados, Alexandre Leripio, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas, Campus Universitario/Florianopolis/SC/Brazil, CEP 88040-979, Caixa Postal 5111. 

The methodology of Quality Benchmark Deployment (QBD) uses the QFD concept to identify organizational variables. This article aims to show how QBD was applied at a Language School to correlate customer's requirements, strategic matters and main drivers. Before these phases, an organizational diagnosis has been achieved to know better the implicit relationship among directors, teachers, students and employees. 

sabino.doc          sabino.zip


Santos SB9.3 One Machine Scheduling Problem With The Weighted Sum of Setup, Tardy and Early Costs, Hamilton Santos, UNICAMP - FEEC, CP 6101 13081-970, Campinas SP Brazil, hamilton@densis.fee.unicamp.br, Paulo Franca, UNICAMP - FEEC, CP 6101 13081-970, Campinas SP Brazil, franca@densis.fee.unicamp.br 

Abstract: The single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times is considered. This problem is focused in a just-in-time environment. Thus, the objective function comprises the simultaneous minimization of setup, tardy and early costs. This function is a non-regular performance measure, then, the insertion of idle times must be considered. We propose a Tabu Search meta-heuristic to solve this problem. In the neighborhood generation a variable strategy of moves is used. A controlled generation of semi-active schedules is used to the idle times insertions. 


Schmenner TA1.2 Theory and Swift, Even Flow, Roger Schmenner, Kelley School of Business, 801 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN, 46202, rschmenn@iupui.edu, Morgan Swink, Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, 10th St & Fee Lane, Bloomington, IN 47405 

Operations management has been criticized for the inadequacy of its theory, yet careful organization of our thinking can lead to useful, productive theories in operation management that demonstrate all the hallmarks of the familiar theories of natural science. One such theory is the Theory of Swift, Even Flow. This theory addresses the phenomenon of cross-factory productivity differences. It explains why some factories outperform others and it unifies laws relating to variability, bottlenecks, scientific methods, quality, and factory focus. It also clarifies the exposition of the product-process matrix. 


Schmidt SB9.2 Scheduling Problems in Manufacturing Networks, Guenter Schmidt, Universitat des Saariandes, Postfach 15150, D-66041, Germany, gs@itm.uni-sb.de, Wilbert E. Wilhelm, Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3131 

Production of components and their assembly to final products is often carried in geographically dispersed facilities. Each facility can be represented by a node of a network where production and assembly operations take place. The arcs of the network represent the structure of the manufacturing process. The final products have to be delivered to the customer in time. This problem setting results in various scheduling questions. We present models and algorithms to solve such scheduling problems in manufacturing networks. 


Schultz SB6.2 Control-Limit Scheduling of Service Requests, Carl Schultz, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, schultz@anderson.unm.edu, H. V. Ravinder, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, ravinder@anderson.unm.edu 

We examine the problem of scheduling service request to optimize a basic tradeoff between delayed processing and overtime costs. Because the service requests must be completed in their scheduled time period, scheduling too many may require significant overtime. Conversely, delaying a service request results in a postponement cost similar to an inventory backorder cost. Using a Markov chain analysis, we develop an expression for the long-run total cost of using a control-limit policy; a policy which schedules up to a fixed number of requests each period. This allows us to find an optimal cutoff number. 


Schultze SA6.2 Four Research Paradigms for Investing Knowledge Work, Ulrike Schultze, Management Information Sciences, Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, PO BOX 750333, Dallas, TX, 75275, uschultz@mail.cox.smu.edu 

Knowledge work is defined as work that (1) draws upon abstract knowledge, (2) acts on representations, and (3) produces information and knowledge. Furthermore, knowledge workers have to deal with higher levels of ambiguity than do service workers. These definitions of knowledge work are established in contrast to other categories of work. Attempts to develop more unequivocal definitions are however plagued by the ambiguity surrounding the meaning of knowledge because knowledge must be understood in the context of ontology (what constitutes reality) and epistemology (how we know), this paper applies Burrell and Morgan's (1976) framework of social theory to identify four paradigms for investigating knowledge work.


Schutten SA3.4 Capacity planning at the Royal Netherlands Navy dockyard, J.M.J. Schutten, Production and Operations Management Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, R. de Boer, Production and Operations Management Group Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

The Royal Netherlands Navy Dockyard is responsible for the maintenance, overhaul, and maintenance of ships, as well as many shore facilities. We discuss the re-engineering process at this dockyard, a new production management structure, and a decision support system for capacity planning. This system is used for order acceptance (rough-cut capacity planning) and for scheduling activities at a lower level (finite capacity multi-project scheduling). 


Sherrard TB9.4 Implementing Advanced Management Technology: Organizational Issues, William R. Sherrard, IDS, College of Business, San Diego State University, 17264 Libertad Dr., San Diego, CA 92182, sherrard@mail.sdsu.edu, Fred Raafat, IDS, College Business, San Diego, CA 92182-8234, fred.raafat@sdsu, Mehdi Salehizadeh, Finance, College of Business, San Diego, CA 92182-8236, mehdi.salehizadeh 

Considerable attention is being given to the role of manufacturing/operations in achieving strategic goals of the firm. Competition, foreign and domestic, has increased the need for firms to successfully implement and operate advanced manufacturing technologies (ATMs) in a timely manner. The successful implementation of these new technologies is as much an organizational issues as a technical challenge. This paper explores the systemic relation between a firm's organizational climate and the chances for success in the implementation and operation of AMTs. We review the organizational aspects of traditional production systems (TPS) and AMTs and then discuss the problems faced by firms seeking to obtain a match between their organization structure and the adopted AMT systems. 


Shih SD8.4 Using Intelligent Systems Technology for Effective Business and Financial Operations and Decision Making, Stephen C. Shih, Dept. of Info Sys., AUM, Montgomery, AL, 36117, Sshih@monk.aum.edu 

The primary objective of this article is to explore the business and financial applications of Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks technologies to revolutionize the way financial services firms operate. Especially, this article focuses on the use of these intelligent systems technologies for business operations reengineering and financial/investing modeling. Insights of the effective use and the immense unrealized potential of the intelligent systems technology in financial/investing decision making are addressed. A prototype developed by using the Neuroshell (Ward Systems Group, Inc.) is also presented to support the research findings in this article. 

Shirley SC3.3 Teaching Technology Management in Operations Management, Britt Shirley, Univ. of Tampa, Box 152F, Tampa, FL, 33606-1490, Bmshirley@aol.com 

The role of technology in organizations, and in our everyday lives, has grown tremendously in recent years. However, the mere use of technology does not guarantee that the improvements it was intended to yield will be realized. Today's managers must be able to manage the technology available to them and decide which options should be implemented. This paper (1) examines the role of the core operations management course in teaching students to manage technology, (2) addresses the integration of technology concepts into operations management texts, and (3) investigates alternate methods of integrating technology management into the curriculum. 

Shulver SA6.3 Service Design Communication Constructs, Michael Shulver, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV47AL, UK, , pomms@wbs.warwick.ac.uk, Nigel Slack, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, VC47AL, UK, pomns@wbs.warwick.ac.uk

The operations management literature reveals no definitive view on what constitutes a service design. There are few documented empirical findings or theoretical ideas on what a final service design should contain. The existing literature on the makeup of service designs presents a number of problems and gaps. As with the literature on process, most existing work explores the applicability of goods-like models of design communications constructs. The iterative or overlapping nature of service design is recognized by few authors. This paper will address these gaps by presenting the findings of a two-year program of research on service design. 


Siferd SC2.3 Quality and Ethics in Operations Management: A Review of Stakeholder's Interests, Sue Perrott Siferd, Business Administration Dept., College of Business, Arizona State University, PO Box 4706, Tempe, AZ, 85287, sue.siferd@asu.edu, Susan Amundson, Management Dept., College of Business, Arizona State University, PO Box 4006, Tempe, AZ 85287, susan.amundson@asu.edu, Liane Easton, Business Administration Dept., College of Business, Arizona State University, PO Box 4706, Tempe, AZ 85287, liane.easton@asu.edu 

In the last two decades, the quality movement in the United States shows some parallels to the interest in corporate ethics. Both movements require a commitment on the part of top management and wide-spread employee education and involvement to be effective. They share a common set of stakeholders: customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, and the community. The quality movement has sprung from a need to be competitive, while motivation for the ethics movement is not as clear. We present a framework for comparing the two movements through stakeholder models in the ethics and quality literature, and derive propositions for future study. 


Siferd TB7.1 Student Project in Operations Management: One Instructor's Evolution, Sue Perrott Siferd, Business Administration Dept. College of Business Arizona State University P.O. Bix 4706, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4706, Sue.siferd@asu.edu 

Over the past ten years of teaching in the field of operations management, I have assigned a variety of student projects. These have evolved from a five minute presentation on "What I do in my work place that is related to Operations Management" to a four part project on a process improvement, and finally to a two act play showing very poor and very good quality. Student project assignments are always a work-in-process. Examples from graduate and undergraduate classes will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages to project assignments will be discussed. 


Silva TB1.1 The Impact of the Total Quality in the Culture of the Schools of the State Public Net, Carlos Silva, Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, Dept. de Engenharia de Prod. Ave. BPS n 1303, Itajuba, MG, Brasil, 37500-000, Sanches@hotmail.com 

This article tells, the process of implementation of a program of total quality in the schools of the state public net, showing the impact caused in the culture of those schools. It tries to do also, a report of the results, of the changes and of the difficulties obtained with the implementation of the program of total quality. 


Simons SC6.1 The Service Case Scheduling Problem (SCSP), Jake Simons, PO Box 1304, Statesboro, GA, 30459, jsimons@gsaix2.cc.gasou.edu 

Numerous services require the processing of individual customer cases. Each case calls for the service provider to accomplish several tasks, many of which involve precedence relationships and sequence-dependent setup times (SDST). In addition, time lags may be required between certain tasks to permit processing external to the service provider. Finally, satisfaction of customer demand is typically constrained by the availability of the service provider, who seeks to accomplish tasks with an eye toward several dynamic objectives. This problem, designated the SCSP, is both logically and formally described and implications for its solution are discussed. 


Smith SA5.2 The Relationship of Strategy, Fit, Productivity, and Business Performance in a Service Setting, Thomas Smith, Hope College, Dept. of Econ. & Bus., PO BOX 9000, Holland, MI, 49422, tsmith@hope.edu, James Reece, The University of Michigan, School of Business Administration, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, james_reece@ccmail.bus.umich.edu

In their review of the operations strategy literature, Anderson et al. (1989) contend that the hypothesis that a company will perform better if it links its operations strategy to the business strategy is intuitively appealing, but lacks empirical verification. In light of this contention, this research attempts to: 1. define and measure the concept of fit as it applies to operations strategy; 2. show how fit leads to better performance; and 3. Investigate the interrelationships between fit, business strategy, productivity, and performance. These objectives are investigated through field-based research within a wholesale distribution service setting by utilizing path analysis techniques. One interesting result is the significant positive correlation between external fit and performance. 


Sobel SD1.3 Approaches to Aggregate Production Planning: A Curmudgeon's View, Matthew J. Sobel, Stern School, NYU, 40 W. Fourth St., Suite 7-01A, New York, NY, 10012-1118, msobel@stern.nyu.edu 

The evolution of methods to plan aggregate production reflects progress in computing and optimization algorithms and the maturing of operations management. The talk begins by sketching the development history of aggregate production planning. It then describes methods to perform sensitivity analyses in deterministic and stochastic aggregate planning models. It ends by relating aggregate planning to capacity planning. 


Sotskov TA9.3 Mean Flow time minimization with Uncertain numerical data, Yuri Sotskov, Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Surganov Str., 6, 220012, Minsk, Belarus, sotskov@newman.basnet.minsk.by, Tsung-Chyan Lai, National Taiwan University, Department of Industrial and Business Management, Taipei 106, Taiwan, tclai@ntu.edu.tw, Frank Werner, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitat fur Mathematik, PSF 4120, 39016 Magdeburg, Germany, Frank.Werner@mathematik.uni-Magdeburg.de 

A job shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing mean flow time under uncertain numerical input data is modeled in terms of a mixed graph. It is assumed that only the structural data (I.e.,precedence and capacity constraints) are fixed before scheduling while for the operation durations only their lower and upper bounds are given but probability distribution functions of the random durations are unknown. We developed two B\&B algorithms and one based on an implicit enumeration of feasible schedules for dealing with such kind of information about authors and mark the author for correspondence. 


Starr SD1.4 The History and Future Contributions of POMS' Intellectual Capital (POM-IC), Martin K. Starr, Crummer Grad. School of Bus., Rollins College, 1000 Holt Ave., 2722, Winter Park, FL, 32789, mkstarr@ibm.net 

IC is the wealth of an organization that does not appear directly on the traditional balance sheet. It is an inventory of assets that do not get counted in the normal course of events. With the development of learning organizations there is recognition that knowledge networks transcend classical bureaucratic compartments. Translating this for POM: The intellectual capital contributions of production and operations management (as a field of practice) have increasing competitive importance within companies. Also, POMS (the society) is playing an ever-greater role in building a relevant knowledge network and making it available on a global scale. POM-IC connects all participants in the firm as well as customers and suppliers. Some specific scoring models for evaluating POM-IC at the firm level are proposed.


Stuart SA4.2 Measuring Trust for the Development of Better Supplier Alliance Relationships, F. Ian Stuart, Faculty of Business, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W2Y2, istuart@business.uvic.ca, David McCutcheon, Faculty of Business, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W2Y2, dmccutch@business.uvic.ca, Wendy Farwell, Faculty of Business, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W2Y2, wfarwell@business.uvic.ca 

Many companies are forming supplier alliances as key elements of their supply chain strategies. Most descriptions of alliance relationships point to trust as a substitute for control and oversight as these relationships develop. Recently, Sako classified different levels of trust (contractual, competency and goodwill) that buyers might extend to suppliers. Building on Sako's concept, we develop objective measure of a relationship's degree of alliance based on the information exchanges and other related actions that are reflective of the existing level of trust. By so doing, we provide the manager with a tool that can be used to assess the current relationship with key suppliers, the discrepancy between the perceived relationship and the actual relationship so signaled and a means for identifying and justifying the actions required to improve the alliance relationship in the future. 


Sundar SC9.2 Logistics management in a Food Processing Industry: A Multi-Objective Approach, Diatha Krishna Sundar, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076 INDIA, diatha@iimb.ernet.in, K. Ravi Kumar, Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, INDIA, kravi@csa.iisc.ernet.in 

In the changed business environment, product and services are competing more and more on cost competitiveness and value addition. This resulted in making a general statement that "in the globalized business environment supply chains, no the companies compete with each other". In managing supply chain of a food processing industry, procurement of raw material (inbound logistics) as well as distribution (out bound logistics) play a vital role because of the perishable nature of the raw material and finished products. Value addition is possible through enhanced services i.e., in terms of timely collection (of raw materials) and delivery (of finished goods). This could be achieved possibly by incurring higher costs of collection and deliver which is detrimental for the finished products as they lose their cost competitiveness. This situation warrants a dynamic procurement and distribution strategy. In addition, the decisions on new capacity addition and their locations increase the problem complexity. In this paper, the authors examine the role of two stage solution approach - mathematical programming models coupled with heuristics - in making a medium sized food processing unit, which is planning to expand its capacities, manage its supply chain efficiently and effectively. For this purpose a multi-objective location-routing model with fractional and linear objectives is developed to solve the procurement and supply problems and is applied to the considered food processing unit. In the solution methodology, in th first stage a feasible solutions is provided through TSP transformation and solving it through LIFO implicit enumeration and back-tracing, and which is then further improved by a heuristic in the second stage. 


Swartz SC7.3 A Measure of Stability for Project Schedules, Stephen Swartz, Department of the Air Force, Air Force Institute of Technology/LAL, 2950 P Street, BLDG 641, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 45433, sswartz@afit.af.mil 

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the concept of stability as it applies to project management. Project stability is defined, and alternative measures of stability are proposed. A series of simulations were performed on a benchmark set of project management problems under varying conditions of variability and disruptions. Project performance on measures of time, cost, and stability were then compared. 


Swink TA2.1 Speeding up Different Types of New Product Development Projects, Morgan Swink, ODT Dept, School of Business, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN, 47405, Mswink@indiana.edu 

New product development (NPD) efforts vary in levels of innovation, uses of new technology, levels of investment, etc. This empirical study examines the success of various methods for accelerating NPD in differing contexts. Survey data from over 130 NPD projects are analyzed to explore the relative impacts on NPD time of acceleration methods, tools, and functional influences. 


Tempelmeier TA3.1 Inventory Service-Levels in the Customer Supply Chain, Horst Tempelmeier, University of Cologne, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50932 Koeln, , Germany, tempelmeier@wiso.uni-koeln.de 

In this paper inventory service-levels are considered from the point of view of a customer. It is pointed out that the standard alpha-, beta- and y-service-levels used in inventory theory provide only limited information about the delay of customer orders. A procedure for the determination of the probability distribution of the customer order waiting time in a discrete time periodic (r,S)-inventory system is developed. Implications for the management of the supply chain are discussed. 


Turrioni SB8.3 Implementation of Policy Deployment: A Study of Case in a Certified Organization for ISO 9000, Joao Turrioni, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS n 1303, Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000, turrioni@usp.br, Carlos Bicheiro, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS no 1303, Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000, bicheiro@sulminas.com.br, Luis Souza, Escola Federal de Engenharia di Itajuba, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao Avenida BPS no 1303, Itajuba, MG - Brasil CP 50 - CEP 37500-000, mairano@iem.efei.rmg.br 

This paper reports a case study about Policy Deployment that has been conducted in one brazilian manufacturing company. Our focus is on the implementation process. In this case the approach was the certification based on ISO 9001 standard. We discuss the problems and advantages of this approach. 


van Assen SA3.1 Finite Capacity Planning in MTO-environment, M.F. van Assen, Centre for Production, Logistics, and Operations Management , University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, S.L. van de Velde, Department of Decision and Information Sciences, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, P. O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

 We address the capacity planning problem in discrete manufacturing environments with semi-autonomous groups of workers. The problem includes workload determination, capacity smoothing, overtime work decisions and hiring temporal staff. Standard planning methods in practice proceed from a fixed lead time and often unlimited capacity-and are therefore quite inadequate. We formulate these problems as huge integer linear programming problems, (try to) solve them and discuss the implementation of the results in a medium-size company.


Veiga SB1.2 A Study of the Brazilian Scientific Research on Quality Service in the Nineties, Ricardo Teixeira Veiga, R. Santissima Trindade 226A, Sagrada Familia, 31030-250 Belo Horizonte - MG, , Brasil, rveiga@oraculo.lcc.ufmg.br, Pedro Luiz Caetano Filho, Av. Amazonas 718 / 505 Centro, 30180-001 Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil 

Three of the most prominent Brazilian journals concerned Management were studied to get an updated panel of Brazilian research on service quality. Themes, approaches, theoretical foundation, research methods among other paper characteristics were examined in depth. There is sound evidence of improvement in quality of Brazilian research on service quality. Nevertheless there is also evidence of remaining weaknesses such as misuse of statistical techniques and lack of interchange among local researchers. Some recommendations are done to overcome such flaws. Another important issue is that the Brazilian research on quality service is strongly attached to the American scientific production. 


Venkataraman SD4.3 Master Production Schedule Replanning under conditions of Forecast Errors, Ray R. Venkataraman, Penn State University, School of Business, Station Road, Erie, PA, 16563, rayvenk@aol.com 

Updating a master production schedule (MPS) is usually accomplished by the use of a rolling schedule. Building on previous research on rolling schedules, this study addresses the problem of replanning frequency for a rolling horizon MPS under conditions of forecast errors. An actual MPS operation of a paint company served as the problem environment for this study. Preliminary results indicate that when significant forecast errors are present, and when back orders are allowed, a two-replanning interval provides significant cost savings for this company environment. Key words-master production scheduling, goal programming. 


Vokurka TB5.4 Focused Factories: An Empirical Study of Structural and Performance Differences, Robert J. Vokurka, Eng. Tech& Ind. Distr. Dept., Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, 77843, vokurka@entc.tamu.edu, Robert A. Davis, Dept. Of Business Analysis, Texas A & M University, College Station TX 77843, bdavis@cgsb.tamu.edu 

Since the inception of the focused factory concept by Skinner (1974), the idea has been intuitively accepted, but limited empirical research has been published on the topic. Skinner's focused factory is one which has a limited set of demands placed on it by different products, processes, customers, and manufacturing requirements. This study reports on 304 respondents of plants which are part of multi-facility organizations, whether or not they consider their plant a "focused factory," and structural and performance differences between the focused and non-focused plants. Overall the results show that focused factories perform better on a number of performance indicators.


Voss, C. A. SD1.1 Casting out demons-what can we learn from early history of Operations Management?, C. A. Voss, London Business School, Sussex Place, London NWI 4SA, England, cvoss@lbs.ac uk 

People have always been concerned with operations. The theme of this conference presents the opportunity to examine the early history of the subject. Much can be learnt from study of early documents that describe managing operations. For example there are a wealth of textbooks from the turn of the century-often pre-Taylor/Ford, and earlier-a classic being 'De Re Metallica' by Agricola, 1556; translates by President Herbert Hoover and his wife. Through study of the historical roots of OM this paper addresses two questions-what are the fundamentals of the operating context and management that have not changed and how does this shed light on the development of the area and its theories?


Voss, Chris SA5.1 National Context and Manufacturing Strategies, Chris Voss, London Business School, Sussex Place, London, England, NWI 4SA, cvoss@lbs.ac uk, Kate Blackmon, London Business School, Sussex Place, London, England, NWI 4SA, kblackmon@lbs.ac.uk, Per Lindberg, Chalman University, Sweden.

Abstract: The theories of Manufacturing Strategy argue that the choices that companies make are contingent on the markets and strategies of firms. In an increasingly global environment it can be argued that the manufacturing strategies of firms will also be contingent on the national socio-economic context. This paper examines this proposition using data collected from the international manufacturing strategy study, a postal survey of 600 manufacturing sites in North and South America, Europe and Asia. The analysis presented supports this proposition and reveals strong patterns of national impact on plant level manufacturing strategy.


Voss, Christopher TA1.3 Manufacturing Improvement and Learning: An Empirical Study, Christopher Voss, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, cvoss@lbs.ac uk, Ahlstrom Par, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, pahlstrom@lbs.ac.uk, Kate Blackmon, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, kblackmon@lbs.ac.uk 

The underlying hypothesis examined in this paper is that learning is needed for company to improve manufacturing practices and performance over time. A framework is developed, synthesising three models which make learning operational in a manufacturing context. The framework is applied to and tested in fifteen in-depth case studies of UK manufacturing sites. Findings indicate that outstanding manufacturing sites rated high on practices associated with learning organizations. The cases are used to illustrate this finding and also to generate hypotheses on how companies improvements paths may be related to the level of learning.


Voss, Christopher TA1.4 Initiating Manufacturing Improvement, Christopher Voss, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, cvoss@lbs.ac uk, Ahlstrom Par, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, pahlstrom@lbs.ac.uk, Kate Blackmon, Centre for Operations Management, London Business School, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, UK, kblackmon@lbs.ac.uk 

A prerequisite for improving manufacturing is to get started on an improvement path. Seeing the organization as a field of forces, the problem of initiating manufacturing improvement can be expressed as opposing forces: there are forces pushing for change and forces resisting change. Using a sample of fifteen in-depth case studies of UK manufacturing sites, the paper examines the forces involved in initiating manufacturing improvement. Findings indicate that for improvement to be initiated, a company must reach a threshold on a continuum representing an awareness for change. One determinant of the threshold's location is how much counter-force that needs to be overcome. 


Werner TA9.4 On Two-machine flow shop problems with a common due date, Frank Werner, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitat fur Mathematik, PSF 4120, 39016 Magdeburg, Germany, Frank.Werner@mathematik.uni-Magdeburg.de, Jatinder N. D. Gupta, Department of Management, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47302, jgupta@gw.bsu.edu, Volker Lauff, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitat fur Mathematik, PSF 4120, 39016 Magdeburg, Germany. 

We consider the two-machine flow-shop problem, where for all jobs a common due date is given. The objective is to minimize an arbitrary objective function of a sum of earliness-tardiness penalties. For this problem, we develop a branch and bound algorithm. The branching strategy, dominance criteria, and the lower bounds are described in detail. Some of the results are strengthened for the case of the sum of specific earliness-tardiness penalties. Moreover, we present some constructive and iterative heuristic algorithms that exploit structural properties of the problem considered. These algorithms are compared relative to each other and for small problem sizes, a comparison with the branch and bound algorithm will be made. 


White SD2.4 A Test Bed for Analyzing Feedback and Control Mechanisms in Hierarchical Production Planning, Larry White, School of Business and Professional Studies Aurora University 347 S. Gladstone Ave., Aurora, IL, 60506, lwhite@admin.aurora.edu 

We present a simulation test bed for analyzing feedback and control mechanisms for hierarchical models of production planning problems. This test bed can repeatedly generate and solve random scenarios for a variety of two-level hierarchical production planning problems using several feedback and control mechanisms to coordinate the levels. The test bed enables comparison of the various feedback and control mechanisms in a rolling horizon implementation. The significance of the research is that a more thorough understanding of the interaction between the levels of a production planning problem over time will lead to improved hierarchical decision-making techniques. 


Wilson SB7.1 Measuring Myths: Cost Reductions and the Model T; The Assembly Line and Other Sources, James Wilson, Management Studies Department, Glasgow University, 59 Southpark Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LF, Scotland, UK, j.wilson@mgt.gla.ac.uk 

Ford's development of the assembly line is known for its impact on reducing the Model T's costs. Other developments that affected productivity at Ford were less well publicized and remain virtually unknown. Ford's initiatives to improve morale and labor turnover are not widely known, nor are their drives to reduce bought-in components' costs and use design for manufacturing principles to increase output. Management culture also played a role, with post-WWI management seeking to exploit productivity gains more avidly. Productivity gains and cost reductions had a variety of sources as revealed by internal records described and analyzed in this paper. 


Wilson SC8.3 The Portsmouth Block Mill: Cellular Manufacturing in 1805, James Wilson, Management Studies Department, Glasgow University, 59 Southpark Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LF, Scotland, UK, j.wilson@mgt.gla.ac.uk 

The Portsmouth Block Mill was built at Portsmouth, England in 1805 and produced the rigging blocks used by the British Navy throughout the 1800's. It was designed as a set of three manufacturing cells, each concentrated on producing a specific range of the product. The facility's layout, materials handling, use of labor and specialized equipment anticipated many modern developments that will be discussed. Comparisons with developments in the US that lead to the "American System of Manufactures" will be drawn. 


Wilson SD1.2 Doing History, James Wilson, Management Studies Department, Glasgow University, 59 Southpark Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LF, Scotland, UK, j.wilson@mgt.gla.ac.uk 

Researching the history of thought in operations management uses methods and techniques more commonly found in historical research. A review of historical frameworks and research strategies provides insight for operations management specialists on the most effective approaches to research in their own areas of interest. Historical research is often subjective because management thought is embodied in, or inferred from practice. Artifacts and industrial archaeological evidence as well as source documents and commentators all provide historical information. Appropriate analytical techniques will be described and illustrated. 


Yang TA4.1 ISO 9000 in the Software Industry, Y. Helio Yang, IDS Depart., College of Business, SDSU, San Diego, CA, 92182, hyang@mail.sdsu.edu 

The software industry has matured into a solid engineering discipline while software applications have grown in size, complexity, and criticality. In addition, the marketplace possesses a more realistic understanding of what a software product (and the industry at large) can deliver, and has become less tolerant of poor-quality products and draining, hidden maintenance costs. ISO 9000 is the latest trend in quality programs worldwide. This paper provides an overview of ISO 9000 application in the software industry and a framework of implementation. 


Youngdahl SD6.4 The Service Supply Chain: Integrating Service Design into Global Supply Chains, William E. Youngdahl, World Business Department, Thunderbird, The American Graduate School, Glendale, AZ, 85306, youngdb@t-bird.edu, Arvinder Loomba, Department of Management, College of Business Administration, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, arvinder.loomb@uni.edu 

The service factory concept suggests that the traditional service role of the factory, that of meeting production schedules, can be significantly expanded. Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that manufacturing performance, particularly delivery performance can be enhanced through expanded service roles that integrate both internal and external services. Despite such benefits, there has been little, if any, discussion of applying and expanding the service factory concept to the design of global supply chains. This paper serves as an initial step toward achieving this conceptualization for integrating service design into the design and management of global supply chains. 


Yourstone TB1.2 Understanding and Teaching the Baldrige Criteria in POM Classes, Steven Yourstone, Anderson School of Management University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, yourstone@anderson.unm.edu 

The Malcolm Baldrige national quality award is an enterprise model for excellence. To call it a quality award is somewhat misleading. The criteria appear to be a simple checklist of categories to address. Most POM texts simply show the criteria in a table or figure -- but do not discuss or interpret the award to any significant degree. This paper is about the experiences of a senior examiner in the state of New Mexico. Quality New Mexico administers the New Mexico Quality Awards -- using the Baldrige criteria. Understanding the award requires a struggle to apply it to actual applications. 


Zeng SA8.3 Economic Plans for On-Line Feedback Quality Control, Amy Zeng, Dept. Of Production & Decision Sciences, Cameron School of Business, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, 28403, zenga@uncwil.edu 

Product quality has been considered to be one of the most important competing factors by every kind of company in today's global market. Of various strategies introduced in quality improvement programs, on-line feedback quality control has been proven to be efficient and successful for manufacturing firms. This paper studies the effects of on-line feedback, which refers to returning the defective semi/finished-products after inspection to the associated workstation for rework, on the performance of transfer lines. Significant performance criteria are obtained and evaluated through queuing network models. Conditions of economic feedback control are identified based on cost functions. 


Zeng SC9.3 An Integrated Optimization Procedure for Managing Inbound Movements, Amy Zeng, Dept. of Production & Decision Sciences, Cameron School of Business, University of North Carolina, Wilmingtion, NC, 28403, zenga@uncwil.edu 

Purchasing and inventory management are two of the most important elements in a supply chain and dictate the total cost incurred and influence the overall chain performance. This paper attempts to establish an integrated framework that incorporates various significant factors, such as cost, price, quality, delivery, and technical service for making efficient decisions on purchasing and inventory. Meanwhile, the paper emphasized on the role of transportation in the inbound logistics management. In particular, we establish a theoretical optimization procedure that can be efficiently an conveniently implemented in spreadsheet for purchasing, logistics and inventory managers.

 Plenary Speaker Papers:

Richard B. Chase
"Mr. Taylor, Meet Mr. Customer" - Service Operations Contribution to the Development of OM

chase.doc          chase.zip


Christer Karlsson and Par Ahlstrom
"The History of Thought in Operations Management - A European Perspective"

crister.doc          christer.zip


Jeff Miller
Operations Management: West and East

miller.ppt          miller.zip


Richard J. Schonberger
The Japanese Era (1970s) and Its Influence on OM Practice and Strategy

schonberg.doc     schonberg.zip


Ben Niebel
An Industrial Engineering Perspective on Operation Management's Intellectual History

niebel.zip   (contains Word.doc and Powerpoint Presentation)